Showing posts with label P - - - PERSONS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label P - - - PERSONS. Show all posts

10/10/2012

Morikawa Kyoroku

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- Morikawa Kyoroku / Kyoriku 森川許六 -

1656 - 1715
明暦2年8月14日(1656年10月1日) - 正徳5年8月26日(1715年9月23日))
26th day of the 8th lunar month - he was 60 at his death.
His name was 森川百仲.
He later used the names of Goroosei 五老井 Gorosei
無々居士 / 琢々庵/ 碌々庵 / 如石庵 / 巴東楼 / 横斜庵 / 風狂堂 and others.


source : itoyo/basho

He was a samurai of the Hikone domaine 彦根藩.
His father was the important samurai 森川與次右衛門, who had lived and worked for 7 years in Otsu.

Kyoroku learned all the fighting skills of a samurai, but also traditional Chinese poetry and painting from the Kano school 狩野.
His haiku debut was with Kitamura Kingin. He was part of the Danrin Haikai school.
In 1689 he became a more serious haikai master and studied with Esa Shoohaku 江左尚白 Esa Shohaku ( 1650 - 1722) of the Basho disciples in Omi.

During a trip to Edo in 1691 he studied with Kikaku 宝井其角 and 服部嵐雪 Ransetsu.
In 1692 he met Basho in Fukagawa. Since he was a man of many talents and "six (roku) arts" 六芸 (spear, sword, horse riding, calligraphy, painting and haikai), Basho offered him the haikai name of Kyoroku 許六.
Kyoroku could only study with Basho for about 10 months, before he had to go back to his domaine in Hikone.
Basho wrote for him Saimon no Ji 柴門之辞, with all the secrets of haikai writing.
"The Rustic Gate" (Blyth)

One of the 10 important haiku disciples of Basho.
He was quite close to Basho in his later years. Kyoroku even taught Basho how to paint even better, since Kyoroku was an experienced painter himself of the Kano school of painting.
There are also some co-operations with poems by Basho on paintings by Kyoroku.

When he got news of the death of his beloved master, he cut a cherry tree, carved a statue of Basho and send it to Kawai Chigetsu 河合智月.
Later he opened haikai meetings in memory of the master at the temple Myooshooji 明照寺 Myosho-Ji in Hikone and compiled some volumes of his master's work.

- - - - - Some of Kyoroku's works
Fuzoku monzen 風俗文選
Haikai Mondoo 俳諧問答
Hentsuki 篇突
Infusagi 韻塞


旅ハ風雅の花 旅客・五老井許六 Gorosei Kyoroku


. shoomon jittetsu 蕉門十哲 the 10 most important disciples of Basho .
and one of the important discipled from Omi 近江蕉門.



Kyoroku Ki 許六忌 (きょろくき) Kyoroku Memorial Day
Goroosei Ki 五老井忌(ごろうせいき)Gorosei Memorial Day

kigo for mid-autumn
(now celebrated on September 23)

. WKD : Memorial Days of Famous People - Autumn .

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to the candle
the peony
is as still as death

Tr. Blyth

shizumari kaeru 静まりかえる

. WKD : Candle (roosoku 蝋燭) .


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Sora and Basho
Painting by Kyoroku when they left Edo for "Oku no Hosomichi.


Matsuo Basho send some poems to Kyoroku, knowing his disciple was to leave on to a journey:


旅人の心にも似よ椎の花
. shii no hana no kokoro ni mo niyo Kiso no tabi .

emulate the heart
of pasania blossoms:
a Kiso journey

Tr. Barnhill



憂き人の旅にも習へ木曾の蠅
. ukihito no tabi ni mo narae Kiso no hae .

learn from the journey
of a sorrowing wayfarer:
flies of Kiso

Tr. Barnhill

Written in 元禄6年5月6日, Basho age 50.




潺々 芭蕉・五老井の流れ - Sensen - the development of Basho and Gorosei
by Ishikawa Shuu 石川柊



- quoting Barnhill :
In the haibun “Praise for a Painting of Three Sages,” which was written on a portrait of the renga poet Sōgi and the haikai poets Yamazaki Sokan (16th century) and Arakida Moritake (1473–1549). The portrait was painted by Bashō ’s disciple Morikawa Kyoriku(1656–1715).

. tsuki hana no kore ya makoto no arujitachi .


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許六離別の詞
Written by Basho, when Kyoroku left
(Basho age 50)

去年の秋*,かりそめに面をあはせ,今年五月の初め,深切に別れを惜しむ.その別れにのぞみて,一日草扉をたたいて*,終日閑談をなす.その器*,画を好む.風雅を愛す.予こころみに問ふことあり.「画は何のために好むや」,「風雅のために好む」と言へり.「風雅は何のために愛すや」,「画のために愛す」と言へり.その学ぶこと二つにして,用いること一なり.まことや,「君子は多能を恥づ」といへれば,品二つにして用一なること,感ずべきにや.画はとって予が師とし,風雅は教へて予が弟子となす.されども,師が画は精神徹に入り,筆端妙をふるふ.その幽遠なるところ,予が見るところにあらず.予が風雅は,夏炉冬扇*のごとし.衆にさかひて,用ふるところなし*.
ただ,釈阿*・西行の言葉のみ,かりそめに言ひ散らされしあだなるたはぶれごとも,あはれなるところ多し.後鳥羽上皇の書かせたまひしものにも,「これらは歌にまことありて,しかも悲しびを添ふる」*と,のたまひはべりしとかや.されば,この御言葉を力として,その細き一筋をたどり失ふことなかれ.なほ,「古人の跡を求めず,古人の求めしところを求めよ」と,南山大師の筆の道*にも見えたり.「風雅もまたこれに同じ」と言ひて,燈火をかかげて,柴門の外に送りて別るるのみ.
source : itoyo/basho


- - - - - Hokku by Kyoroku

秋も早 かやにすぢかふ 天の川
うの花に 芦毛の馬の 夜明哉
茶の花の 香や冬枯の 興聖寺
苗代の 水にちりうく 桜かな
水筋を 尋ねてみれば 柳かな
もちつきや 下戸三代の ゆずり臼


寒菊の隣もあれや生け大根  (『笈日記』)

涼風や青田のうへの雲の影  (『韻塞』)
新藁の屋根の雫や初しぐれ  (『韻塞』)

新麦や笋子時の草の庵  (『篇突』)


麥跡の田植や遲き螢とき  (『炭俵』)
やまぶきも巴も出る田うへかな 『炭俵』)
在明となれば度々しぐれかな  『炭俵』)
はつ雪や先馬やから消そむる  『炭俵』)
禅門の革足袋おろす十夜哉   ( 炭俵』)
出がはりやあはれ勸る奉加帳  (『續猿蓑』)
蚊遣火の烟にそるゝほたるかな  (『續猿蓑』)

娵入の門も過けり鉢たゝき  (『續猿蓑』)
腸をさぐりて見れば納豆汁  (『續猿蓑』)
十團子も小つぶになりぬ秋の風 (『續猿蓑』)
大名の寐間にもねたる夜寒哉  (『續猿蓑』)

御命講やあたまの青き新比丘尼 (『去来抄』)

人先に医師の袷や衣更え  (『句兄弟』)

夕がほや一丁残る夏豆腐  (『東華集』)

木っ端なき朝の大工の寒さ哉  (『浮世の北』)



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. shoomon jittetsu 蕉門十哲 the 10 most important disciples of Basho .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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06/10/2012

Shado - Hamada Chinseki

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- Shadoo, Shadō 洒堂 Shado - - Hamada Chinseki 浜田珍夕/珍碩 -
Takamiya Shadoo 高宮洒堂 Takamiya Shado

(? - 1737) -元文2年 9月13日

Shado was a doctor in Zeze, Omi, and an important member of the Omi Disciples of Basho 近江蕉門, which he joined in 1689.
He lived in a hermitage called 洒楽堂 Sharakudo.
There is a text in its praise : 洒楽堂の記 "Pure Heart Dwelling".
His first haikai name was 珍夕, later he changed to Shado.
He was a very active man and visited Basho in Edo in 1692. The text 江戸に上って "Traveling to Edo" tells about his discussions about haikai matters.

Basho had just one hokku to answer him

青くてもあるべきものを唐辛子
. aokute mo aru beki mono o toogarashi .

green was just right
and yet now it's
a red pepper

Tr. Barnhill

better
to have stayed green -
the pepper

Tr. Addiss

Written in 1692. 元禄5年9月


Shado later moved to Osaka to become a professional haikai master. He lived in rivalry with haikai master Shidoo 之道 Shido and Basho traveled to Osaka to make peace between the two in 1694.
Basho wrote 洒堂の鼾 "Shado no Ibiki" about this affair. - see below -
But Basho died later in this year.

Shado suffered from an eye disease in later years.
He was also the editor of the collection "Hisago" 『ひさご』 "Gourd".


Haruo Shirane about Bashō and Shadō
source : books.google.co.jp



. Enomoto Shidoo 槐本之道 Shido .
Tookoo - 東湖 - Toko "East Lake" . from Osaka


. Matsuo Basho and his friends .


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- - - - - Matsuo Basho wrote for his disciple


難波津や田螺の蓋も冬ごもり
Naniwazu ya tanishi no futa mo fuyugomori

Naniwa Lagoon !
the lid of the mudsnail too
closed for hibernation

Tr. Gabi Greve


Written in 1693, 元禄6年10月
for Hamada Chinseki - Shadoo 浜田珍夕/珍碩(洒堂) Shado.

Shado had decided to become a professional haikai master in the summer before and left his rural home in Zeze, Omi (where Basho sees him as a tanishi) in summer to make it in the lively town of Osaka.
But now in winter, this tanishi could close its lid and enjoy some solitude.

. WKD : tanishi 田螺 たにし paddie snails, mud snails . Cipango paludina. Teichschnecke
- kigo for late spring


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柳行李片荷は涼し初真桑
yanagigoori katani wa suzushi hatsu makuwa

his wicker box
carries the coolness
of the first Makuwa melon


Written in Genroku 5, 22 of the fifth lunar month
元禄7年閏5月22日. At Rakushisha 落柿舎 in Kyoto.
His disciple 洒堂 Shado had come to visit and brought Makuwa melons from Osaka in one box.
The other side of his luggage was probably a melon from Kyoto.
Maybe the men just started a haikai session right away with this hokku.

Hamada Chinseki / Shadoo 浜田珍夕/珍碩(洒堂)
(? - 1737, 9月13日)
Makuwa melons were a favorite of Matsuo Basho.


Travelling with
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


koori  行李 box to carry luggage, a wicker trunk
. WKD : yanagi goori 柳行李 box from willow tree .

. makuwa uri 真桑瓜 makuwa melon .


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秋に添うて行かばや末は小松川
aki ni soute yukaba ya sue wa Komatsugawa

traveling with autumn
I would go all the way to
Komatsu River

Komatsu-gawa is a name for a river as well as a village along its banks.

Basho and his disciples Tokei 桐奚 and Shado 洒堂 were boating along the Onagizawa canal 女木沢, which connected the Sumida and Komatsu rivers in Edo.
Tr. and comment by Barnhill


source : itoyo/basho
Onagizuka Memorial Stone 小名木塚

Written in 1692 元禄5年9月.
Onagigawa 小名木川 is the name of a small canal. It connects the village Komatsu-Mura 小松川村 with the Sumida river.


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猪の床にも入るやきりぎりす
inoshishi mo toko ni mo iru ya kirigirisu

penetrating even
the lair of a wild boar—
cricket’s cry

Tr. Barnhill



another version has the title “Shado snoring by my pillow
洒堂が、予が枕元にて鼾をかき候を

床に来て鼾に入るやきりぎりす
toko ni kite ibiki ni iru ya kirigirisu

coming to my bed
mixing with the snoring:
a cricket

Tr. Barnhill


Written in 元禄7年9月, Basho age 51.
Basho had come to Osaka to reconcile his two disciples. He stayed partly with Shido, partly with Shado, who's snoring was quite a nuisance for Basho.



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- - - - - Hokku by Shado


草取のはれに染めなす柿苧哉
杉原の上に筆ちる星の陰
いろいろの名もむつかしや春の草  in Hisago ひさご

in Sarumino 猿蓑
神迎水口だちか馬の鈴
知恵の有る人には見せじけしの花
人に似て猿も手を組秋のかぜ
鳩ふくや澁柿原の蕎麥畠
高土手に鶸の鳴日や雲ちぎれ
日の影やごもくの上の親すゞめ 
細脛のやすめ處や夏のやま

in Sumidawara 炭俵
いそがしき春を雀のかきばかま 
さうぶ懸てみばやさつきの風の音 
名月や誰吹起す森の鳩 
とうきびにかげろふ軒や玉まつり 
碪ひとりよき染物の匂ひかな 
神送荒たる宵の土大根  

in follow-up Sumidawara 続猿蓑
花散て竹見る軒のやすさかな 
春雨や簔につゝまん雉子の聲
山吹も散るか祭のふかなます
腰かけて中に凉しき階子哉
名月の海より冷る田簔かな
秋空や日和くるはす柿のいろ

in Kyoraisho 去来抄
唐黍にかげろふ軒や玉まつり 
source : itoyo/basho


- Reference - matsuo basho shado -


- Reference - 浜田 洒堂 -


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. Matsuo Basho and his friends .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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01/10/2012

Yasukawa Rakugo

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- Yasukawa Rakugo 安川落梧 -

万屋助右衛門, 安川助右衛門 - Suke'emon
1652-1691

A rich cloth merchant from Gifu, 岐阜本町 with close connections to the dealers in Kyoto.

He invited Basho to stay at his villa in Inabayama 稲葉山 in the summer of 1688 貞亨5年夏 and cared for his haikai master. He even made it possible for Basho to watch the cormorant fishing.

His hokku are featured in the collection Uribata 瓜畠集.


When Basho visited him Rakugo had just lost his young child, so Basho wrote the following verse to express his condolences:


もろき人にたとへん花も夏野哉
moroki hito ni tatoen hana mo natsu no kana

I would compare them
to a delicate child: flowers
of a summer field

Tr. Barnhill

Basho would like to give some flowers as an offering to the dead child, but in the summer heat there are no flowers in the wild fields.
No flowers in the fields and no words of comfort and solace for the grieving family.


- - - - - Basho also wrote this during his stay :

Responding to an invitation from a certain Rakugo, I enjoy the cool under the pines of Mount Inaba, soothing the hardships of my journey

山陰や身を養はん瓜畠
yamakage ya mi o yashinawan uribatake

mountain cove—
I would nourish my body
with this field of melons

Tr. Barnhill

The villa of Rakugo was in the "mountain shadow" yamakage, of Mount Inabayama.

This hokku expresses his greatfulness for the host Rakugo, who made it possible for Basho to rest a while and become strong again to continue his journey.

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Juhachiro no ki 十八楼ノ記 Tower of Eighteen
. Basho at Mount Inabayama 稲葉山 .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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23/06/2012

Basho about himself

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- Basho about Basho and his life -

quote
by Jack Galmitz, THF, Periplum 9 :
The tradition of eliminating the “I” from haiku
coincided with the idea (fostered by Blyth, a student of D.T. Suzuki) that haiku was an offshoot of Zen Buddhism and that haiku aimed at enlightenment. While it is true that there were haiku written that purposely were meant as such expressions, haiku generally were not viewed as a medium of such expression.
Basho was not a Buddhist, had minimal understanding of the religion,
and was a poet first and foremost.

- Read more here:
. WKD : I .. the first person .



Basho in Edo - - - Five Portraits
source : hakusyunetto



Basho often writes directly about his own life and situation.
Although the word "I" is not often used in the Japanese language, it is implied in the structure and use of the verb our noun to be understood as the author writing about himself.

There may be too many haiku in this way by Basho, here I will list just a few that come to mind.

Poet centric hokku - - - Thanks to Don Baird for the inspiration of this phrase.
- Matsuo Basho Archives, Facebook -


- - - - -

Basho also writes a lot about the people he meets during his lifetime.
He describes their activities during the seasons, including festivals, food, clothing . . . thus he paints a vivid picture of the Edo period he lived in.
The haiku categories "humanity" and "observances" tell us much about it.
Check the "Cultural Keywords" tab on the right side.


people-centered hokku, people-centric hokku

. - Names of Persons used by Basho .

Some persons he mentions by name,
others he implies by using the name of an animal or a flower for a lady.

There are just too many to even try to list them all.

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発句なり松尾桃青宿の春
hokku nari Matsuo Toosei yado no haru

this is a hokku -
Matsuo Tosei's
home on New Year


Basho using his own name, Basho Toosei 松尾桃青 "Green Peach"
and his thoughts about hokku and haikai
. WKD - Hokku and Haikai  発句と俳諧 .



死にもせぬ旅寝の果てよ秋の暮
. shini mo senu tabine no hate yo aki no kure .
I am not dead yet - - - shi ni mo senu - shinimosenu -


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Basho uses the expressions WARE - われ /我  I, myself, me
WAGA わが / 我が 
- my 

YO 予 me, myself



蕣や是も叉我が友ならず
. asagao ya kore mo mata waga tomo narazu .
(autumn) morning glories. not my friend


花にうき世我が酒白く飯黒し
. hana ni ukiyo waga sake shiroku meshi kuroshi .
(spring) cherry blossoms. floating world. white ricewine. black rice


初時雨初の字を我が時雨哉
. hatsu shigure hatsu no ji o waga shigure kana .
(winter) first winter drizzle. the character "first". my name "Shigure"


人に家を買はせて我は年忘れ
. hito ni ie o kawasete ware wa toshi wasure .
(winter) "forget the year". I make him buy a house.
for . Kawai Otokuni 川井乙州 .



いでや我よき布着たり蝉衣
. ide ya ware yoki nuno kitari semi-goromo .
Thank-you hokku to Sugiyama Sanpu for a new light summer robe.

いざよひもまだ更科の郡哉
. izayoi mo mada Sarashina no koori kana .
I am still in Sarashina


かげろふの我が肩に立つ紙子かな
. kageroo no waga kata ni tatsu kamiko kana .
(spring) heat shimmers. my shoulder. paper robe


香を探る梅に蔵見る軒端哉
. ka o saguru ume ni kura miru nokiba kana .
I gaze at the eaves of the warehouse


君や蝶我や荘子が夢心
. kimi ya cho ware ya Sooji ga yumegokoro .
(spring) butterfly. You are. I am Chuang-tzu.


碪打ちて我に聞かせよ坊が妻
. kinuta uchite ware ni kikase yo ya boo ga tsuma .
Let me hear it too !


こちら向け我もさびしき秋の暮
. kochira muke ware mo sabishiki aki no kure .
I am lonely too. For Kitamuki Unchiku 北向雲竹


見るに我も折れるばかりぞ女郎花
. miru ni ga mo oreru bakari zo ominaeshi .
I will break my vows too. For priest Soojoo Henjoo 僧正遍照 Sojo Henjo


ものひとつ我が世は軽き瓢哉
. mono hitotsu waga yo wa karoki hisago kana .
(summer) gourd flowers, just one possession


夏草や我先達ちて蛇狩らん
. natsukusa ya ware sakidachite hebi karan .
I go first to catch a snake. At Genju-An 幻住庵

猫の恋やむとき閨の朧月
. neko no koi yamu toki neya no oborozuki .
after the cat's love, hazy moonlight in my bedroom


能なしの眠たし我を行々子
nōnashi no nemutashi ware o gyōgyōshi
. noonashi no nemutashi ware o gyoogyooshi .
I have not talent and am tired. Saga Nikki 嵯峨日記


起きよ起きよ我が友にせん寝る胡蝶
. okiyo okiyo waga tomo ni sen neru kochoo .
please become my friend, dear butterfly


酒飲めばいとど寝られぬ夜の雪
. sake nomeba itodo nerarenu yoru no yuki .
when I drink sake I can not sleep


早苗にも我が色黒き日数哉
. sanae ni mo waga iro kuroki hikazu kana .
I am suntanned from many days traveling


涼しさを我が宿にしてねまるなり
. suzushisa o waga yado ni shite nemaru nari .
coolness ad my lodgings


旅人と我が名呼ばれん初時雨
. tabibito to waga na yobaren hatsu shigure .
more haiku from Basho, the Eternal Traveller


旅寝して我が句を知れや秋の風
. tabine shite waga ku o shire ya aki no kaze .
...then you'll know my poems ...


塚も動け我が泣く声は秋の風
. tsuka mo ugoke waga naku koe wa aki no kaze .
... my wailing, my tears ... at the news of the early death of his disciple
Kosugi Isshoo 小杉一笑(こすぎ いっしょう) Kosugi Issho


うき我をさびしがらせよ閑古鳥
. uki ware o sabishigarase yo kankoodori .
... this sorrowful me . . .


わが衣に伏見の桃の雫せよ
. waga kinu ni Fushimi no momo no shizuku seyo .
(spring) peach blossoms. my robes. peaches of Fushimi, Kyoto.
at Temple Saigan-Ji 西岸寺. for 任口上人 Saint Ninko


我がためか鶴食み残す芹の飯
. waga tame ka tsuru hami-nokosu seri no meshi .
(spring) dropwort. cooked rice. just for me. crane left it over


わが宿は蚊の小さきを馳走かな
. waga yado wa ka no chiisaki o chisoo kana .
(summer) mosquito. my humble home


我も神のひさうや仰ぐ梅の花
. ware mo kami no hisoo ya aogu ume no hana .
(spring) plum blossoms. me too. I look up to god in the blue sky
for Sugawara Michizane 菅原道真


我に似るなふたつに割れし真桑瓜
. ware ni niru na futatsu ni wareshi makuwa uri .
Do not be like me. two halves of a melon
- for his disciple Enomoto Shido Toko 槐本之道 - 東湖


煩へば餅をも喰はず桃の花
. wazuraeba mochi o mo kuwazu momo no hana .
I am so ill, I can't even eat rice cakes



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予が風雅は夏炉冬扇のごとし
yo ga fuuga wa karo toosen no gotoshi

my elegance
is like a fireplace in summer
like a fan in winter

Tr. Gabi Greve

He was referring to himself, his poetical activities were useless compared with the wishes of other people.

MORE discussion of this hokku :
. WKD : fuyu oogi 冬扇 (ふゆおうぎ) "handfan in winter" .



木枯の身は竹斎に似たる哉
. kogarashi no mi wa Chikusai ni nitaru kana .
(winter) winter drizzle. I resemble the shabby doctor Chikusai
a kyooku 狂句 Kyoku, comic verse


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Five Portraits
source : hakusyunetto

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Basho about his thatched hut, Basho-An 芭蕉庵
. iori, an 庵, yado 宿 my humble abode .

Basho about his traveller's hat
. - kasa 笠 hat - .

Basho about his walking stick, cane, staff
. - tsue 杖 walking stick .

Basho about his facial expression : yoogan, yōgan 容顔
. WKD : face - 顔 kao, 面 tsura .

. Basho shedding tears .
- tears 涙 namida - to cry 泣くnaku -

. Basho and his dreams .
- yume 夢 dream -

. Basho drinking green tea 茶 .  

. Basho about his illness, chronic stomach illness 腹病 fukubyoo .

. - Emotions expressed directly by Basho - .

. MORE Topics used by Basho .
food and regional dishes he enjoyed - - - - - and more on this growing list !


::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::


あの中に蒔絵書きたし宿の月
. ano naka ni maki-e kakitashi yado no tsuki .
I want to draw a maki-e laquer painting


霰聞くやこの身はもとの古柏
. arare kiku ya kono mi wa moto no furugashiwa .
I am the same as before, like an old oak tree


足洗うてつひ明けやすき丸寝かな
. ashi aroote tsui akeyasuki marune kana .
I washed my feet (at the end of a long trip in Akashi)


父母のしきりに恋し雉の声
. chichi haha no shikiri ni koishi kiji no koe .
I long for my dead parents


地に倒れ根に寄り花の別れかな
. chi ni taore ne ni yori hana no wakare kana .
I fall to the ground to bid farewell - for Zen priest 坦堂和尚 Tando


二日にもぬかりはせじな花の春
. futsuka ni mo nukari haseji na hana no haru .
on the second day I won't fail (at temple Hasedera 長谷寺)


冬籠りまた寄りそはんこの柱
. fuyugomori mata yorisowan kono hashira .
I will lean against this pillar


冬の日や馬上に氷る影法師
. fuyu no hi ya bajoo ni kooru kagebooshi .
my shadow is frozen on the horse's back


ごを焚いて手拭あぶる寒さ哉
. go o taite tenugui aburu samusa kana .
I dry my hand towel

愚案ずるに冥土もかくや秋の暮
. guanzuru ni meido mo kaku ya aki no kure / guan zuru .
(autumn) end of autumn. in my humble view . the netherworld

愚に暗く茨を掴む蛍かな
. gu ni kuraku ibara o tsukamu hotaru kana .
foolishly in the darkness I grab a thorn


花の陰謡に似たる旅寝哉
. hana no kage utai ni nitaru tabine kana . I feel myself to be in a Noh play. at Yoshino

半日は神を友にや年忘れ
. hanjitsu wa kami o tomo ni ya toshi wasure .
I spent half a day in the company of the deities

針立や肩に槌打つから衣 
. haritate ya kata ni tsuchi utsu karakoromo .
acupuncture on my shoulder
and this about acupuncture - 月花の愚に針たてん寒の入 -tsuki hana no gu ni hari taten kan no iri

初秋や畳みながらの蚊屋の夜着
. hatsu aki ya tataminagara no kaya no yogi .
my folded mosquito net as my blanket

初花に命七十五年ほど
. hatsu hana ni inochi nanajuu gonen hodo .
I will gain at least 75 years



市人よこの笠売らう雪の傘
. ichibito yo kono kasa uroo yuki no kasa .
(winter) snow. I sell you this hat full of snow.


幾霜に心ばせをの松飾り
. iku shimo ni kokoro baseo no matsukazari .
(New Year) pine decoration. frost. home of Baseo (Basho)

命二つの中に生きたる桜かな
. inochi futatsu no naka ni ikitaru sakura kana .
between our two lives - for Hattori Dohoo 服部土芳 Doho from Iga



歩行ならば杖突坂を落馬哉
. kachi naraba Tsuetsuki-zaka o rakuba kana .
If I had walked, I would not have fallen from the horse


瓶割るる夜の氷の寝覚め哉
. kame waruru yoru no koori no mezame kana .
(winter) ice. water jar. breaking. I wake up


雁聞きに京の秋に赴かん
. kari kiki ni miyako no aki ni omomukan .
I will set out to listen to the geese in the autumn in Kyoto.


暮れ暮れて餅を木魂の侘寝哉
. kure kurete mochi o kodama no wabine kana / kurekurete .
I sleep alone. My desolate sleep.

. kusuri nomu sarademo shimo no makura kana .
(winter) frost on my pillow. I drink medicine but


草臥れて宿借るころや藤の花 
. kutabirete yado karu koro ya fuji no hana .
(spring) wisteria flowers. I am so tired. looking for a lodging


めでたき人の数にも入らむ老の暮
. medetaki hito no kazu ni mo iran oi no kure .
getting older - beyond 42

身にしみて大根からし秋の風
. mi ni shimite daikon karashi aki no kaze .
(autumn) autumn wind. penetrates my body. pungent radish

餅を夢に折り結ふ歯朶の草枕
. mochi o yume ni ori musubu shida no kusa makura .
my pillow stuffed with grass

物いへば唇寒し秋の風
. mono ieba kuchibiru samushi aki no kaze .
my lips are cold when I talk

麦の穂を力につかむ別れ哉
. mugi no ho o chikara ni tsukamu wakare kana .
I clutch to the barley ears to support myself


夏衣 いまだ虱を とりつくさず
. natsugoromo imada shirami o tori tsukusazu .
my summer robes sill full with lice

夏かけて名月暑き涼み哉
. natsu kakete meigetsu atsuki suzumi kana .
I feel summer coolness with the autumn full moon

蚤虱 馬の 尿 する枕もと
. nomi shirami uma no bari suru makuramoto .
fleas and lice and a horse pissing near my pillow


思ひ立つ木曽や四月の桜狩り
. omoitatsu Kiso ya shigatsu no sakuragari .
I am resolved, I am ready for cherry blossom hunting in Kiso


扇にて酒くむ陰や散る桜
. oogi nite sake kumu kage ya chiru sakura .
(spring) cherry blossoms. my hand fan. I pretend to drink sake

近江蚊帳汗やさざ波夜の床
. Oomi-gaya ase ya sazanami yoru no toko .
my sweat, my bed at night, mosquito net from Omi


五月雨や蚕煩ふ桑の畑 
. samidare ya kaiko wazurau kuwa no hata .
Basho compares himself to an ill silkworm


関守の宿を水鶏にとをふもの 
. sekimori no yado o kuina ni toou mono .
I ask for the home of the barrier guard.


せつかれて年忘するきげんかな
. setsukarete toshi wasure suru kigen kana .
I feel great at the year-end party

しばし間も待つやほととぎす千年
. shibashi ma mo matsu ya hototogi su sennen .
I wait only for a short while

白髪抜く枕の下やきりぎりす
. shiraga nuku makura no shita ya kirigirisu .
white hair under my pillow

城跡や古井の清水まづ訪はん
. shiro-ato ya furu-i no shimizu mazu towan .
I will seek pure well water first


須磨寺やふかぬ笛きく木下やみ
. Sumadera ya fukanu fue kiku koshita yami .
I listen to a flute nobody plays at temple Sumadera 須磨寺


旅烏古巣は梅になりにけり
. tabigarasu furusu wa ume ni nari ni keri .
"traveling crow" (Basho about himself). old nest


旅に飽きてけふ幾日やら秋の風 
. tabi ni akite kyoo ikuka yara aki no kaze .
I am tired of traveling . . .


年の市線香買ひに出でばやな
. toshi no ichi senkoo kai ni idebayana .
I go out to buy some incense

月十四日今宵三十九の童部
. tsuki juuyokka koyoi sanjuu ku no warabe .
tonight I am a child of 39


月雪とのさばりけらし年の暮
. tsuki yuki to nosabari kerashi toshi no kure .
I have indulged myself in "moon and snow"


鶴鳴くやその声に芭蕉破れぬべし
. tsuru naku ya sono koe ni bashoo yarenu beshi .
the voice of a crane will tear a banana plant leaf


埋火や壁には客の影法師 
. uzumi-bi ya kabe ni wa kyaku no kagebooshi .
my shadow like a visitor on the wall


宿りせん藜の杖になる日まで
. yadorisen akaza no tsue ni naru hi made .
(summer) pigweed Chenopodium album. I would lodge here. goosefoot grows a staff

山陰や身を養はん瓜畠
. yamakage ya mi o yashinawan uribatake .
I nourish my body in the mountain cove (at Inaba yama), taking a rest

雪の朝独リ干鮭を噛み得タリ 
. yuki no ashita hitori karazake o kami etari .
Here Basho uses the word HITORI, I am alone, eating dry salmon

行く秋や身に引きまとふ三布蒲団
. yuku aki ya mi ni hikimatou mino-buton .
I wrap my body in a narrow bedding matress

湯の名残り今宵は肌の寒からん
. yu no nagori koyoi wa hada no samukaran .
tonight my skin will not feel cold - at Yamanaka Hot Spring 山中温泉
- - - - - and
湯の名残り幾度見るや霧のもと - yu no nagori iku tabi miru ya kiri no moto
I look back many times

夕顔や酔うて顔出す窓の穴
. yuugao ya yoote kao dasu mado no ana .
I am drunk (Basho about himself)


座頭かと人に見られて月見哉 / zatō
. zatoo ka to hito ni mirarete tsukimi kana . 座頭 zatō
I appear like a blind man to people


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. - shirazu, shiranu 知らず/ 知らぬ - I do not know - .


. - kokoro こころ - 心  "heart", mind, soul - .


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Five Portraits
source : hakusyunetto


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- BASHO about his neighbours - tonari 隣 -

古巣ただあはれなるべき隣かな
. furu su tada aware naru beki tonari kana .
aware - for priest Sooha 宗波 Soha of the Obaku Zen school
(furusu - the old nest)



秋深き 隣は何を する人ぞ
aki fukaki tonari wa nani o suru hito zo

autumn deepens
and I wonder,
what is my neighbour doing?

Tr. Gabi Greve

MORE translations
. aki fukaki tonari wa nani o suru hito zo .


.............................................................................


. Basho and his family .

His Wife ? Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼 / His Son ? Jirobei 二郎兵衛 / His nephew Tooin 桃印 Toin

子に飽くと申す人には花もなし
ko ni aku to moosu hito ni wa hana mo nashi

数ならぬ身とな思ひそ玉祭
kazu naranu mi to na omoi so tama matsuri

Basho about his own children.
and a hokku for his wife, Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼


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Basho talking to folks in the market place
. ichibito yo kono kasa uroo yuki no kasa .
let me sell you my hat!

YO is a very strong expression.
Hey you folks there!



Basho telling folks to listen up!
. mukashi kike Chichibu dono sae sumootori .
mukashi kike - listen to the old stories!



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- - - - - His very last one :

旅に病んで夢は枯野をかけ廻る
tabi ni yande yume wa kareno o kakemeguru

falling ill while travelling -
in my dreams I am wandering
over withered fields



. WKD : Travelling with Haiku .






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散る柳あるじも我も鐘を聞く
chiru yanagi aruji mo ware mo kane o kiku

我が宿の淋しさ思へ桐一葉
waga yado no sabishisa omoe kiri hitoha

- - - - - details of these two hokku are here
. WKD : I .. the first person - ich selbst.


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17/06/2012

Hitomi Izumo no Kami

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- Hitomi Izumo no Kami 人見出雲守 (ひとみいづものかみ) -


Maybe a fictional character, maybe a real person.

He is supposed to have been a polisher of mirrors in Kyoto, with such a special reputation for clearness, that he could call himself

tenka ichi 天下一 one in Japan, the best in all of Japan.

hitomi 人見 "to be seen by all people"

izumo 出雲 - kumo ga deru 雲が出る "clouds come out"

He has become famous through the poem of Matsuo Basho.

Basho wanted to enjoy the full moon on the 15th day of the 8th lunar month in 1677 延宝5年 (Basho age 34).

So he called on the master polisher to clear the sky from clouds.
A typical hokku of the Danrin flavor 談林風俳句.


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今宵の月磨ぎ出せ人見出雲守
こよいのつき とぎだせひとみ いずのかみ
koyoi no tsuki togidase hitomi izu no kami
or
こよひのつきとぎだせひとみいづものかみ

the moon of tonight
please polish it to come out, Hitomi
Izunokami


The segments are 6 7 5.


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. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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15/06/2012

Iga Ueno Shomon

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- Iga Ueno  伊賀上野 -

Iga Shoomon 伊賀蕉門 Basho students of Iga province.


Iga Manko was one of the students of Matsuo Basho.
. Iga Manko 伊賀万乎(まんこ) .


under construction
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Iga Manko 伊賀万乎(まんこ)

In some translations his name is given as Banko.
The first Chinese character of his name,
万, can be read MAN or BAN.

? - 1724, August 15
生年不詳 - 1724年(享保9年)8月15日)


His name was Osakaya Jiroo Tayu (Jiro-dayu, Jiroodaiu)
大坂屋次郎大夫
He was a rich merchant in Iga Ueno.

In 1691 on the 23 of the third lunar month he had a blossom viewing party in his estate, where Matsuo Basho was present as the guest of honor.
伊賀万乎亭(マンコテイ)で花見 Iga Manko Tei de Hanami


Iga Manko was one of the students of Matsuo Basho.
Iga Shoomon 伊賀蕉門 Basho students of Iga province.


伊賀蕉門の研究と資料 Study of the Iga Shomon Group
source : mozubooks.com


An account about Basho's visit to the Manko-Tei estate:
quote
大坂屋次郎太夫宛書簡
昨日は御手がみ忝致二拝見一候。並御発句*。脇句その二三申上候*。静々留置候。吟味、加筆可レ致候*。仍而今夕御催可レ被レ成旨珎重に存候へ共*、頃日夜をふかし候事相つヾき、少々いたみ腹、味も損申候間、二三日過而御催可レ被レ成候。為二御断一如レ此御座候。其内期二貴面一可レ得二御意一候*。以上
八朔
大坂屋次郎大夫様                        
はせを         
source : www2.yamanashi-ken.ac.jp



. Sengin 蝉吟 (1642 - 1666) "Cicada poet" .
Todo Shinshichiro 藤堂新七郎, Young Master of Basho


. . . . .

Others with the name of IGA in the Sarumino collection are

伊賀土芳 Iga Tohoo (1657 - 1730), Hattori Dohoo
伊賀探丸 Iga Tangan (son of Sengin Toodoo Yoshitada)
伊賀一桐 Iga Ittoo
伊賀猿雖 Iga Ensui (1640 - 1704)
伊賀蝉吟 Iga Sengin (1642 - 1666)


Igashuu 伊賀衆 the Poets from Iga (active around 1698 - 1733)


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Ogawa Fuubaku 小川風麦 Ogawa Fubaku
(? - 1700) 元禄13年12月17日)

His personal name was 小川政任. He was a wealthy samurai, working with the Toodoo group 藤堂.
His daughter married the town governor of Iga, 友田角左衛門, and took the haiku name of Shoofuu 梢風 Shofu. She and her husband Ryoobon 良品 Ryobon were ardent haikai students.

Basho wrote some hokku at his estate.

あこくその心も知らず梅の花
. Akokuso no kokoro mo shirazu ume no hana .
1688

木の下は汁もなますもさくらかな
. ki no moto ni shiru mo namasu mo sakura kana .
1690


At the home of Ryobon, Basho wrote the following hokku in 1689

いざ子供走りありかん玉霰
. iza kodomo hashiri arikan tama arare (tama-arare) .


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source : zzz_pei_zz

Look at the home where he was born.
芭蕉生家




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"The Monkey's Straw Raincoat" - Sarumino
Earl Miner and Hiroko Odagiri

In 'The Monkey's Straw Raincoat'... there appear 118 poets, or 119 if Shinken is counted for his Chinese verse. Of them, 113 were still alive at the time of the compilation. In this respect (as Joosoo's postcript implies), we must think of that collection as one of people then alive who were of the Basho school. (The five who had died had done so only recently, so that they represent only a seeming exception.)

The hokku section of 'The Monkey's Straw Raincoat' has 382 stanzas. Two poets appear much the most often: Boncho with forty-one stanzas and Basho with forty. Next come Kikaku and Kyorai with twenty-five each. Poets with between ten and fifteen stanzas include: Shoohaku (14); Fumikuni (13); Joosoo, Sora, and Ukoo (12); and Ranran (10). Those with four to nine stanzas are: Senna, Hanzan, Otokuni, Dohoo (also Tohoo), Chinseki, Ransetsu, Sampu, Chigetsu, Tangan, and Bokusetsu (in decreasing order of frequency).

Some seventy-one poets are represented by only one stanza in the whole of 'The Monkey's Straw Raincoat'. From the hokku collection, eleven are known solely for having one stanza and for nothing more (including place of origin, etc.)

One of the features of this collection is the presence of six women poets. The most important is Ukoo (her husband is Boncho who, as we have seen, was the most fully represented of the men). Chigetsu is also represented among those who appear with some frequency. In addition there are: Chine (Kyorai's sister, who had died), Ooshuu, Sen, and Tagami no Ama (or the nun Tagami).

It is particularly telling that upwards of twenty percent of the poets (18 of 118) are substantially unknown. (The Autumn hokku begin with a poet labeled "Anonymous," but that may be a joke.) Poets who were important enough to participate in the kasen are of course better known. But in the hokku section of 'The Monkey's Straw Raincoat', seven are wholly unknown otherwise (Choowa, Genshi, Ranko, Ransui, Ryuuin, Sooji, Yoosui).

Five are known simply as being from Edo (Ensui, though not the famous one, Kakoo, Keiseki, Sansen, Zenhoo), another five as being from Iga (Choobi, Ichitan, Juntaku, Risetsu, Sekikoo), and four from Zeze (Bokusui, Deido, Senso, Shiyuu). There is one from Owari (Kaikyoo) and another from Mikawa (Shiin). Given the problems with reading pen names, it will be clear that it is particularly difficult to make certain [of] the names of these obscure people. In social terms, it is more significant still that so many people were included whom history has cast into obscurity as being of no consequence.

Other collections of the seven thought canonical for Basho-style haikai would give a somewhat different cross-section of the society of the time, although the differences would not be extreme. There might be fewer people otherwise unknown and fewer women. But the earlier generalization would still hold: the poets are mostly of middling social origins and more of low than of higher rank. It was people such as these who contributed to make their generation one of the great periods of Japanese poetry.


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At the first haikai meeting of the year 1688, at the temple 薬師寺 Yakushi-Ji in Iga Ueno,
Basho wrote this greeting hokku for his disciples

初桜折りしも今日はよき日なり
hatsuzakura orishi mo kyoo wa yoki hi nari

first cherries blooming:
right now, today,
is such a fine day

Tr. Barnhill

The cut marker NARI is at the end of line 3.

Written in the spring of 1688, 貞亨5年春.

This refers to a Zen saying about
. nichi nichi kore koonichi 日々是好日 Every Day is a Good Day .


. Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文 .

Temple Yakushi-Ji 薬師寺, 三重県伊賀市鳳凰寺224


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Haiseiden 俳聖殿 Hall of the Haikai Saint
(click for more images of the hall)


Basho and Iga Castle 松尾芭蕉と伊賀上野城 


Hisoka no Kuni Iga Ueno -秘蔵のくに伊賀上野

Stamps from 2002, designed by Harada Tsunao 原田維夫
source : warp.ndl.go.jp


- - - - -


Sweets from Iga Ueno, in Memory of Basho
source : amamori.exblog.jp



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shoomon 蕉門 Shomon, Basho students, Basho's school
shoofuu 蕉風 Shofu, Basho style haiku

. Basho jittetsu 芭蕉十哲
10 great and most important disciples of Basho


***** Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets 


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. Iga Manko 伊賀万乎(まんこ) .

. Mukai Kyorai 向井去来 .

. - Okamoto Taiso 岡本苔蘇 - . (? - 1709)



. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .


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Family Ties

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His Wife ? Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼
His Son ? Jirobei 二郎兵衛

His nephew Tooin 桃印 Toin
 





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- Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼 Juteini, the Nun Jutei -
(? - 1694)
(生年不詳~元禄7年6月2日)

Much is unclear about this woman and her relation to Basho.

She is said to have been the wife or mistress of Matsuo Basho in his younger days.
She was maybe the only woman Basho ever loved.

Or she was the wife of his nephew Toin.
Toin had stayed at Basho-an for more than 17 years, and died of tuberculosis.
His son might have been Jirobei.

Most probably she was from Iga, Ueno, like Basho himself.
Maybe she followed Basho to Edo and lived with him there.

She had three children, one boy Jirobei 二郎兵衛
and two girls Masa まさ and Fuu ふう

quote
For five years Matsuo resided in Kyoto (returning now and again to Ueno). Little is known of the details of his life during this period; but his artistic and scholarly pursuits would seem to have been coupled with a bohemian existence. A woman named Jutei is believed to have been his mistress for a time.
Then Kigin—having found employment with the Shogun— moved to Edo; and Matsuo decided to follow him there.
- snip
The literary scene in Edo was thriving; and he was its star.
But he began to yearn for solitude—and for relief from responsibilities. For he was contributing now to the support of several persons: his former mistress Jutei and her children, and an ailing nephew.
Finally this worldly involvement became too much for him. So Basho locked his gate and became a recluse.
Yuasa
source : terebess.hu/english


Juteini became a nun (NI 尼) later in life. But this seems speculation too.

She died in Edo, at Basho-An in 1694, where she had lived taking care while Basho was traveling.
元禄7年6月2日.

Basho heard of her death later in the on the 8th day 6月8日, when he was in Saga, Kyoto, at Rakushisha 落柿舎.

In other records in a temple in Iga there is a record of a death of
Matsuo Jutei 松誉寿貞
元禄7年6月2日


Basho himself died in the same year in the 10th lunar month.



秋近き心の寄るや四畳半
. aki chikaki kokoro no yoru ya yojoohan .

His friends Bokusetsu, Hirose Izen and Kagami Shiko were trying to console him at a tea ceremony on the 21st day of the 6th lunar month, when he had gotten the news of her death.

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子に飽くと申す人には花もなし
ko ni aku to moosu hito ni wa hana mo nashi

For one who says,
"I am tired of children,"
there are no blossoms.


When love is absent, cherry blossoms go unappreciated ...

Robert Aitken ... more
source : books.google.co.jp


for one who says
"I 'm weary of my children"
there are no blossoms

Tr. Barnhill


Written about 1684 貞亨元年, Basho age 41 or later.
(Other sources state it was written by someone else.)
Blossom, short for "cherry blossoms", well loved by all in spring.

Maybe it was written after he had begun to take care of the children of Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼.



. WKD : Kodomo 子供 children .

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- - - - - The last hokku in her memory





数ならぬ身となおもひそ玉祭
数ならぬ身とな思ひそ玉祭
kazu naranu mi to na omoi so tama matsuri

do not think
you did not count:
Festival of Spirits

Tr. Barnhill


never think of yourself
as someone who did not count -
festival of the souls

Tr. Ueda


Written in 元禄7年, Basho age 51.
Basho had to celebrate her first O-Bon festival.
The hokku shows how important this woman had been in his life and how deeply he mourned her death.


Tamamatsuri - the Bon Festival
. Bon Festival お盆 O-Bon, Obon .

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芭蕉と寿貞尼(じゅていに)
source : intweb.co.jp/basyou_jutei

寿貞尼
source : itoyo/basho


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- His Son ? Jirobei 二郎兵衛 -

quote
. . . . in the summer of 1694 Basho traveled westward on the familiar road along the Pacific coast, taking with him one of Jutei's children, Jirobei.
He rested at Ueno for a while, and then visited his students in Kyoto and in town near the southern coast of Lake Biwa. Jutei, who had been struggling against ill health at the Basho Hut, died at this time and Jirobei temporarily returned to Edo. Much saddened, Basho went back to Ueno in early autumn for about a month's rest. He then left for Osaka with a few friends and relatives including his elder brother's son Mataemon as well as Jirobei.

Yuasa
source : terebess.hu/english


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- His nephew Tooin 桃印 Toin, To-In  -
(?1661 - 1693)

(生年不詳~元禄6年3月)
芭蕉の甥

When Toin was about 6 years old, Basho was 23. Toin might have been the son of his sister, who either was divorced or her husband had died and she came back to the main Basho family.
Basho's Brother Hansaemon 半左衛門 was too poor to care for them.

When Basho was rich enough to make a living in Edo he called Toin to come live with him. Toin became the adopted son of Basho.
But Toin died young, of tuberculosis, at age 33.
This made Basho think about his own mortality and life in general.
Basho may also have been forced to borrow money to care for the medical bills of his nephew.

It is not clear if Toin was the husband of Jutei and the three children were his.

Yuushi Tooin 猶子桃印 Yushi Toin

yuushi means an adopted child.



When Toin died in 1693, Basho was very upset and wrote the following two poems to overcome his pain:


郭公声横たふや水の上
hototogisu koe yokotau ya mizu no ue

一声の江に横たふやほとゝぎす
hito-koe no e ni yokotau ya hototogisu


. Matuo Basho - hototogisu 郭公 / ほととぎす - .


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父母のしきりに恋し雉の声
. chichi haha no shikiri ni koishi kiji no koe .   
his parents, father and mother


Matsuo Yozaemon 松尾与左衛門 (? - 1656)
his father
The family is said to date back to the Heike.


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kokeshi dolls of Issa and Basho on the road



- - - His elder brother
. Matsuo Hanzaemon 松尾半左衛門 .



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Katano Boosui 片野望翠 Katano Bosui / 井筒屋新蔵
(? - 1705) died at the age of 49

Said to be the husband of the sister of Basho.
He lived in Iga Ueno. Basho stayed with Bosui in 1694.

里古りて柿の木持たぬ家もなし
. sato furite kaki no ki motanu ie mo nashi .

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. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - About himself and his life .



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14/06/2012

Kanazawa disciples

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- Disciples from Kanazawa 金沢 -


. shoomon 蕉門 Shomon, Basho disciples .


under construction
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Choomu 蝶夢 ちょうむ)Chomu (1732 - 1796)
. Goshoo-An Choomu 五升庵蝶夢 Chomu (Butterfly Dream) .

Hasui 巴水
Editor of . Komojishi Shuu 薦獅子集 Komojishi Collection - 1693 .
(not much known about him)


Hori Bakusui 堀麦水 (ほりばくすい)


Iijima Karyoo 飯島珈涼 (いいじまかりょう)


Kagami Shikoo 各務支考 (かがみしこう)

Kawai Kenpuu 河合見風 (かわいけんぷう)

Kawanaka Otsuyuu 中川乙由 (なかがわおつゆう)

Kihaku 既白 (きはく)

Kishi Daisui 岸大睡 (きしだいすい)

Kodera Koosen 小寺後川 (こでらこうせん)

Kuroseya Sankoo 黒瀬屋山叩 (くろせやさんこう)


Nakagawa Bakuroo 中川麦浪 (なかがわばくろう)


Ozaki Kookoo 尾崎康工 (おざきこうこう)


Uo jakusui 卯尾若推 (うおじゃくすい)


Sawa Rosen 沢露川 (さわろせん)

Sengoku Rogenboo 仙石廬元坊 (せんごくろげんぼう)

Shi senjo 紫仙女 (しせんじょ)

Soogoya Suejo 相河屋すへ女 (そうごやすえじょ)
Soogoya Shiho 相河屋之甫 (そうごやしほ)


Suma Jo 須磨女 (すまじょ)


Tachiya Johon 館屋如本 (たちやじょほん)


. Takakuwa Rankoo 高桑闌更 Takakuwa Ranko .


Wada Ki-In 和田希因 (わだきいん)

Wada Uchuu 和田宇中 (わだうちゅう)


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. Oku no Hosomichi - Kanazawa .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .



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Mukai Kyorai

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- Mukai Kyorai 向井去来 -

1651 - 1704
慶安4年(1651年) - 宝永元年9月10日(1704年10月8日)




応々といへど敲くや雪の門
oo to iedo tataku ya  yuki no mon

'Yes, yes!' I answered,
But someone still knocked
At the snow-mantled gate

Tr. Blyth


and his home,
Rakushisha 落柿舎 "Hermitage of the fallen persimmon"

. WKD : Persimmon (kaki) .


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Kyoraisho, Kyorai-sho, Kyorai Sho 去來抄
Writing of Kyorai, Conversations with Kyorai

one of the most important studies of Basho. A record of conversions of Basho with his disciples.

さびは句の色なり。 閑寂なる句をいふにあらず。 たとへば、老人の甲冑をたいし 戦場に働き、
錦繍をかざり御宴に侍りても、老の姿有るがごとし。

sabi wa ku no iro nari.
kanjaku naru ku wo iu ni arazu. tatoeba, roujin no katchuu wo taishi senjou ni hataraki,
kinshuu wo kazari goen ni haberitemo, oi no sugata aru ga gotoshi.

Sabi is the color of haiku.
It is different from tranquility.
For example, if an old man dresses up in armour and helmet and goes to the battlefield,
or in colorful brocade kimono, attending (his lord) at a banket, [sabi] is like this old figure.

Tr. Zoltan Barczikay


quote
‘Yamei asked me, what the "sabi" of a poem was?
I said that sabi was in the colour of a poem, not in its subject, however sombre it may be. It is like an old man in armour fighting in a battle, or a man drinking and feasting in his best clothes, and yet looking aged. It can be found in both gay poems and sad poems.
I gave a poem of my own as an example:

hanamori ya shiroki kashira o tsukiawase

The flower keepers —
They put their heads together,
Frosted with white hair.

My master praised this poem, saying that the colour of sabi is well described in it.’
source : Yuasa in haijinx




去來抄 - 口語訳
source : sasa.org/library

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Rakushisha 落柿舎(らくししゃ)
"Hermitage of the fallen persimmon"

is the cottage of Genroku poet Mukai Kyorai 向井去来.
Kyorai was one of ten disciples of the haiku poet, Matsuo Basho.

quote
The cottage was listed in the Shui Miyako Meisho Zue, an Edo period travel book that listed famous places to see in Kyoto. The name of the place is derived from a story of how Kyorai achieved enlightenment.
As the story goes, Kyorai had forty persimmon (kaki) trees planted around the hut. One autumn, when they were heavy with fruit, he had arranged to sell the persimmons. But during the night before they were to be picked, a great storm arose. The following morning, not a single persimmon remained on the trees. As a result Kyorai was enlightened and from that point forward called the hut and garden, Rakushisha or 'the cottage of the fallen persimmons'.
The poem he wrote for the occasion is inscribed on a stone in the garden:

かきぬしや こずえはちかき あらしやま
柿主や梢はちかきあらし山
kakinushi ya kozue wa chikaki Arashiyama

Master of Persimmons
Treetops are close to
Arashiyama


There's a bit of word play here. Arashiyama is a mountain near Kyoto but it means literally 'Storm Mountain'.

Basho visited here three times, in 1689, 1691 and 1694.
source : jgarden.org : Rakushisa


quote
Having been born into a Samurai family, Kyorai was a man of exemplary character and held a spirit worthy of bushi (warrior) all through his life. Not a few of his hokku reflect such personality of his.
For example:

元日や家にゆずりの太刀帯ん 
Ganjitsu ya ie ni yuzuri no tachi hakan

New Year’s Day...
today I shall wear the special sword
handed down for generations


Kyorai was a brave man. One episode which is testimonial to his bravery is to be found in a book entitled “Rakushi-sha Kyorai-Sensei Jijitsu” (Facts of Master Kyorai of Rakushi-sha) written by Genchu Mukai

Susumu Takiguchi
source : worldhaikureview2


It is possible that Kyorai began to practice haikai shortly before the compilation of Ichiro-Fu in the summer of 1685. A year before that, namely the first year of Jokyo (1684), Kikaku came up to Kyoto and stayed there for some time during which he had kukai meetings with local haikai poets. This resulted in the compilation of the anthology Shimi-Shu. Kyorai’s name was not yet found in it.
...
The second year of Jokyo (1685) was very important for Kyorai in another way. That is to say that in this year Kyorai had a second home built in Saga area of Western Kyoto. This was the detached house which was to become Rakushi-Sha (Falling Persimons Pavillion) when in 2 Genroku (1689) Kyorai came back from his visit to Nagasaki. There were as many as forty persimmon trees in this second house which indicates that it was quite a sizable estate.

Kyorai’s main house is said to have been situated near Shogo-in in Okazaki. He must have been a man of substance if in addition to this main house he could afford to buy a large estate even if it was in the countryside. There were forest lands in Shogo-in. The area where Kyorai’s main house was located is held to have been called Okazaki Village. Kyorai’s family was a rich family with successful medical doctors. However, Kyorai was not a doctor himself and quite how he amassed wealth is a moot point.

Susumu Takiguchi
source : worldhaikureview2 - 2012



quote
After Bashô’s journey, which he recorded in The Narrow Road to the Depths (Oku no hosomichi), the Shômon haikai witnessed a stylistic change in the 1690s, as Bashô’s disciple Kyorai observed:

"When the late Master came back to the capital from his journey to the far North, our school’s style changed drastically. We all carried a knapsack to see the Master at the Unreal Dwelling, or attended his lectures at the Fallen Persimmons Cottage.
Most of us learned the essentials of the Master’s teaching during that time. Hisago and Sarumino were the results."

Hisago (Gourd, 1690) and Sarumino (Monkey’s straw raincoat, 1691)
are two haikai collections compiled under Bashô’s direct supervision.

The collections, particularly Sarumino, are generally considered representative of the Shômon style of the 1690s, which Bashô describes as karumi (lightness). In karumi, Bashô called for naturalness and spontaneity in haikai composition as opposed to the heavy conceptual implications of earlier haikai.

“Naturalness” does not seem to be a very unique characteristic in literary theories, but to achieve naturalness in haikai is not so easy. As we have seen, the strict compositional rules inherited from renga predetermined the occurrence of seasons and themes at certain locations of a sequence and required poets to compose on cherry blossoms and the moon at particular places and limited times. They also restricted the mention of specific topics to a number of successive links, and even prescribed in what form a line cuts and a link ends.
Clearly, these regulations made it extremely difficult to achieve naturalness in haikai composition.
Moreover, in order to transform haikai from an entertaining pastime to a high art, for more than a decade Bashô and his followers tried to infuse it with a greater cultural and literary import.
Their adaptation of Daoist themes in the 1680s was a major part of this effort.

source : Basho-and-the-Dao - Peipei-Qiu

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Mukai Kyorai 向井去来 (むかい きょらい)
1651~1704
Reference : Mukai Kyorai



. Mukai Chine 向井千子 . (? - 1688)
his sister, who died very young, age 25 only.

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- - - - - NAGASAKI - - - - -



quote
Nagasaki no nagaki mo towan kumo-gasumi

wishing to know
how long the spring mist extends
over Nagasaki


This poem is said to be one which Kyorai wrote wistfully longing to return to his hometown, Nagasaki. This actually came true in Genroku 2 (1689).

When he was only 8 years old, his father, Gensho, took the whole family from Nagasaki to live in Kyoto. It was in Manji 1 (1658). This means that Kyorai was away from his birth place for 31 long years. He was already 38 years old.

He arrived there in summer which quickly turned autumn when he had to leave back for Kyoto already. He left behind a poem which since has become one of his most celebrated haiku:

kimi ga te mo majiru naru beshi hana-susuki

your waving hand
must be mingled among
the pampas grass


His family and friends did not want him to go and came as far as the hill called Himi, the boundary, to see him off, where there were pampas grass waving in the autumn wind as they said the final goodbye to the departing traveller. This haiku was published in the famous Sarumino(The Monkey’s Straw Raincoat) and the kotoba-gaki (a kind of note) says “Departing Ushichi at the Himi Hill when coming back from Chikushi (the Province of Nagasaki)”. Ushichi was a relative of his, said to be either his nephew or cousin or cousin-in-law, and was very close to Kyorai in that he discussed haikai with Kyorai a lot and had tutorial from him.

The Himi Hill is now part of the administrative district of the City of Nagasaki and calledSusuki-zuka-cho. There is a stone monument there which was erected in Tenmei 4 (1784), bearing this haiku. To reach there you follow the old Nagasaki Gaido and climb up to the Himi-toge which will lead to Yagami-mura and Susuki-zuka can be found there. It is very picturesque and it commands a fine view of the Mount Unzen. In the past one could not enter or come out Nagasaki except for passing this particular route. It is believed that this haiku was the only known poem Kyorai wrote in commemoration of his first return to his homeland.

. . . . . Are there any other stone monuments in Nagasaki with inscriptions of Kyorai’s poems? The answer is in the affirmative.

MORE
source : Susumu Takiguchi


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Arashiyama 嵐山 "Storm Mountain"
is a district on the western outskirts of Kyoto, Japan. It also refers to the mountain across the Ōi River, which forms a backdrop to the district. Arashiyama is a nationally-designated Historic Site and Place of Scenic Beauty.



Iwatayama Monkey Park
"Moon Crossing Bridge" (渡月橋,Togetsukyō), Togetsukyo
tombstone of the Heike courtesan Kogo of Sagano
hamlet of Kiyotaki and Mt Atago
Kameyama koen
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


六月や峯に雲置あらし山
rokugatsu ya mine ni kumo oku Arashiyama

Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉


the six month -
clouds are laying on the summit
of Mount Arashiyama

Tr. Gabi Greve



the sixth month --
with clouds laid on its summit
Mount-Arashi

Tr. Ueda Makoto


Basho is referring to the sixth lunar month.


. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .




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. WKD : Persimmon (kaki 柿) .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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