Showing posts with label C - - - Cultural Keywords. Show all posts
Showing posts with label C - - - Cultural Keywords. Show all posts

01/11/2014

Cultural Keywords

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- Cultural Keywords used by Basho -

During his many travels around Japan, Basho came to know different places, different regional food, different legends, customs and festivals.

He also wrote about animals and plants, implying his friends or famous people from the past.

In his hokku and travel diaries he introduced many items casually, since they were usually known to his fellow poets of the Edo period.
Some of the themes he introduced are kigo.

But for readers coming from other cultures, most of these words need a special explanation before the hokku can be understood in its proper cultural environment.

Here I will try to list the most important ones,
Basho being my guide to Japanese Culture and the early Edo period.

This is the most important collection
of my Basho Archives of the WKD.



. Basho travelling / traveling in Japan .
utamakura 歌枕 place names used in Japanese poetry


Mit Basho durch die Kultur Japans reisen!

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quote
In one of his most famous theoretical statements, Basho says,
“Learn about pines from the pine, and about bamboo from the bamboo.”
Each pine exhibits pineness but is not pineness itself: each pine alludes to, or is symbolic of, the essence of pine.

Contemporary writers may find Basho’s statement confusing. To use the Western terminology of essence we see in Reichhold and many modern Western haiku commentators, even the essence of pine is not the same as the essence of being. The essence of things is not located within the thing itself. The is-ness of a thing is not to be gained through attention to the thing alone. Indeed, is-ness is not the same as the “thingness” of a thing.

Barnhill says that in his travels Basho pursued
 “the wayfaring life in order to embody physically and metaphorically the fundamental character of the universe.”
He visits places “loaded” with cultural and spiritual significance and his sense of “nature” is bound up with these traditions of place. This intertwining of place and significance, the local and the transcendental, is basic to Basho’s experience. The centrality of “place names” or utamakura is basic to Basho’s outlook.
Barnhill says,
“Basho tended to write of places in nature handed down through literature,
giving cultural depth to his experience of nature.”

source : JAMIE EDGECOMBE, 2011


. learn from the pine - - - said my American haiku friends. .  

This is a still growing list. Please come back again.
under construction
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松尾芭蕉と元禄文化
Matsuo Basho and the Culture of the Genroku Period

quote
Genroku 元禄
September 1688 - March 1704
The years of Genroku are generally considered to be the Golden Age of the Edo Period. The previous hundred years of peace and seclusion in Japan had created relative economic stability. The arts and architecture flourished.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. Edo Haikai 江戸俳諧 Haiku and Hokku .


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. ama 海女 woman divers and 海士 fishermen .

. ama 尼 Buddhist Nun .

. Amida 阿弥陀 Amida Buddha - Amidaboo 阿弥陀坊  Amidabo . ###

. an 庵 thatched hut - yado 宿 my humble abode .

. asunaroo, asunarō 翌檜 Asunaro Hinoki cypress .

. aware 哀れ Basho feels the pathos of things .



. bantaroo 番太郎 flood warden in Edo .

. - Basho about Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .
Enjoy the life of a haikai master in the Edo period.

. betsu zashiki 別座敷 detached sitting room .
(also the title of one of his hokku collections)

. biwa 琵琶 lute Biwako 琵琶行 a Chinese poem .

. bunko 文庫 library *.

. byoobu 屏風 Byobu, folding screen * .


. cha 茶 tea, green tea - Tee ### .

. chatsumi 茶摘み picking tea leaves * .

. chausu, cha usu 茶臼 tea-grinding mill * .

. chigo 稚児 children temple acolytes *.

. chigozakura, chigo-zakura 児桜 - famous cherry tree in Akita * .

. Chikusai 竹斎 Doctor Chikusai *.
A shabby doctor and his travelling stories

. dairibina  内裏雛 "Emperor Dolls" for the Hina Doll Festival * .

. doyoo boshi 土用干し airing during dog days * .



. Ebisukoo, Ebisu koo 恵比寿講 Ebisu Ceremony Group * .

. . Edo 江戸 the Samurai Capital ### . .
- - - - - . Edo miyage 江戸土産 souveniers from Edo .


- - - FOOD and DRINK - - - ###


. fude 筆 brush for writing *.

. furiuri, furi-uri 振売 peddlers, hawkers, salesmen *.
bootefuri 棒手振り peddlers with a pole on the shoulders

. furumono dana 古物棚 dealer of old things . *

. - furusato ふるさと 故郷、古里 home village, home town - *.
- hitosato 一里 and shison 子孫 "children and grandchildren"
- sato 里 sato, village, Heimat
- yamazato 山里 mountain village
A most important emotional place for the Japanese.

. futon 蒲団 Japanese bedding. mino futon 三幅布団 / 三布蒲団 narrow matress * .


. futsukayoi 二日酔い/ 宿酔 hangover * .

. fuuga, fūga 風雅 Fuga. elegance, refinement - Aesthetics and Basho * .
- - - - - and
fuuryuu, fūryū 風流 Furyu. elegance, refinement
- - - - fuukyoo, fûkyô  風狂 FUKYO, poetic eccentricity
. fuuryuu no hajime ya Oku no taue uta .
poetic venture, beginning of all art

. fuugetsu, fūgetsu 風月 the beauty of nature * .
lit. "wind and moon"

. fuyugomori 冬篭り winter seclusion, winter confinement * .
- - - - - sashikomoru さしこもる (鎖し籠もる)


. ganjitsu 元日 first day of the year * .

. ge 夏 summer retreat * .

. geta 下駄 wooden sandals, clogs *.

. gobyoo 御廟 imperial mausoleum * .
imperial tomb of Godaigo Tenno 後醍醐帝御廟, Yoshino, Emperor Go-Daigo


. goki ichigu 五器一具 one set of begging bowls * . - - - goki 御器 hitosoroi 一揃い

. goten 御殿 palace, manor - tonozukuri 殿造り *.

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. haikai 俳諧 - hokku 発句 - words used in his poems ! * .


. hachi takaki, hachitataki 鉢叩き ceremony for Saint Kuya 空也上人 * .

. hakama 袴 Hakama formal trouser skirt * .

. hakamairi 墓参り visiting graves at O-Bon * .

. hakkei 八景 Eight Views, eight famous scenic spots * .

. haori 羽織 Japanese coat * .

. haritate, hari tate 針立 acupuncture needle * .

. hatsugatsuo, hatsu gatsu (katsuo 初鰹) first skipjack bonito of the season * .

. - hatsumono 初物 First Things, New Things - * .

. hatsu-uma 初午 first day of the horse * . at a fox shrine

. hei 塀 / hei no yane 塀の屋根 wall with a roof * .

. heso no o, hozo no o 臍の緒 umbilical cord * .

. Hida no takumi 飛騨の工 / 飛騨の匠 craftsman from Hida * .

. Hie oroshi, hieoroshi 日枝颪 wind from Mount Hieizan * .

. hijiri, hijiri kozoo 聖小僧 mendicant monk, "holy man" * .
Basho himself was on a kind of "hijiri" life, travelling all over Japan, without a regular home.

. himuro 氷室 (ひむろ) icehouse, ice cellar * .

. hinokigasa 檜木笠 hat made of cypress bark * .

. hioke 火桶 "fire box", brazier * .

. hoiro 焙炉 stove to dry green tea leaves * .


. - - - Hokku and Haikai 発句と俳諧 - - - . *


. hokutoo 北斗 the Big Dipper, the Plough * .

. hoorai kazari 蓬莢飾 / 蓬莱 Horai-decoration for New Year * .

. hotarumi 蛍見 watching fireflies - hotaru 螢 * .

. hotoketachi 仏達 Buddha statues * .

. hoya 穂屋 "shrine hut with a thatched wall" *.

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. ichi 市 market, shiwasu no ichi 師走の市 december market, toshi no ichi 年の市 Year-End Market * .

. imayoo 今様 popular songs * .

. imo no kami 痘瘡の神 deity of smallpox * .

. iori, an 庵, yado 宿 my humble abode, thatched hut ###.

. iroha 色葉 colored leaves or いろは, the Japanese alphabet * .

. irori 囲炉裏 sunken hearth, fireplace * .

. isaribi, kagaribi 漁り火 fire to lure fish * .

. Izumo no kami 出雲守 / Hitomi Izumo no Kami 人見出雲守 mirror maker * .



. jinbe, jinbei 甚平 light summer robe * .

. joo, jō, kusari 鎖 chain, used to lock * .

jooroku 丈六 Joroku Buddha Statue * .

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. kabuto 甲 / 兜 / 冑 helmet of a samurai *.
famous helmet of Saito Sanemori 斉藤実盛,

. kadomatsu 門松 pines at the gate / matsukazari 松飾り * .

. kagami 鏡 mirror * .

. kagemachi, kage machi 影待ち waiting for sunrise *.

. kakine 垣根 hedge, fence . *

. kamado, hettsui, hetui, hetsui 竃 / 竈 kitchen stove * .
- - - - - niwakamado, niwa kamado 庭竃 / 竈 // kama 釜 iron pot for cooking


. - kami 神 Shinto deities - ### .

. kamigaki 神垣 "Fence of the Gods", fence of a Shinto shrine * .

. kamiko 紙子 paper robes * .

. kami no kao 一言主 face of the deity Hitokotonushi *.

. Kanbutsu-e, Kanbutsu 潅仏会: Buddha's Birthday Celebrations * .

- kane 鐘 bell, temple bell, sunset bell - *

. Kannon Bosatsu 観音菩薩 and Asakusa Kannon 浅草観音 Temple . *

. kapitan カピタン Kapitein, Captain, Dutch Delegation . *

. karahafu, kara hafu 唐破風 Chinese cusped gable . *

. karakasa からかさ / 傘 oil-paper umbrella with a bamboo frame . *

. karakoromo, karagoromo, kara koromo から衣 / 唐衣  robes from China . *

. karo toosen 夏炉冬扇 to be useless - like a stove in summer, a handfan in winter . *

. kasa 笠 bamboo hat, straw hat, traveller's hat . ###

. katabira 帷子 light linen dress . *

. katsuo uri 鰹売 vendor of skipjack, bonito fish monger * .

. kawara 瓦 roof tiles - いらか iraka roof tiles * .

. kawauso no matsuri, kawa uso 獺の祭 Otter Festival at Seta . *

. kazarinawa, kazari nawa 飾縄 rope decoration for New Year * .

. keshizumi 消炭 (けしずみ) ash to extinguishing the fire / sumi 炭 ash . *

. - - kigo and kidai 季語(季題)theory of season words - - .

. kinuta 砧 fulling block * .

. - - kire 切れ and kireji 切字 - - cut and cut markers - .

. koma 駒 - uma 馬 - Japanese horses . ###
- - - - - komamukae, koma mukae 駒迎へ selecting tribute horses for court

. kometsuki 米搗き professional rice grain pounder . *

. komo 薦 straw mat . *

. komorido 籠人 / 籠り人 person in retreat . *
- at temple Hasedera, Nara 長谷寺

. kooshi goosu, gabushi 合子 - furugooshi 古合子 set of food bowls . *

. koromogae 衣替え, 衣かへ  changeing robes for summer . *

. koshi no wata 腰の綿, 腰綿 "cotton wrapper around my hips" . *

. kosode 小袖 short-sleeved kimono . *

. kotatsu 炬燵 Kotatsu heater - okigotatsu 置炬燵 . *

. koto 琴  Koto zither / kotobako 琴箱 box for a koto . *

. kuchikiri, kuchi kiri kuchikiri 口切 opening a new jar of tea * .

. Kumasaka Choohan 熊坂長範 Kumasaka Chohan . ###

. kunichi 九日 okunichi "Honorable Day with a Nine" . * - Chrysanthemum festival

. kura 蔵 storehouse, warehouse . *

. kusamakura, kusa makura 草枕 pillow stuffed with grass . ###

. Kutsuki bon 朽木盆 tray from the Kutsuki region . *


. kyooku 狂句 Kyoku - comic verse, crazy verse . *

. - Kyooto 京都 Kyoto, Kyo - Miyako 都 / みやこ - .

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. machi ishi, machiichi, machi isha 町医師 doctor in town . *
- - - kusuri nomu 薬飲む  drinking medicine

. makie, maki-e 蒔絵 gold-silver laquer work . ###

. makuwa melon 真桑瓜 makuwa uri . *
with painted faces on "princess Melon" 姫瓜 hime uri

. manzai 万歳 Manzai performance . *

. masu 枡  measuring box . *
- - - . masu 升 container for ritual sake .

. matsukazari 松飾り "pine decroation" * .

. mayuhaki, mayu haki  眉刷毛  eyebrow brush . *


. meido めいど / 冥土 / 冥途 nether world, world of the dead . *

. men 面 - 能面 Noh mask . *

. mino to kasa 蓑と笠 Mino straw raincoat and rain hat . *
- - - - - . minomushi 蓑虫 bagworm  . *

. misogi 御祓 summer purification . *

. miyamori 宮守 shrine warden . *

. mochibana, mochi-bana 餅花 New Year decorations . * - lit. "mochi flowers"

. momi suru 籾する hulling rice, polishing rice . *
- - - - - Momi suru Oto 籾する音 The Sound of Hulling Rice

. - mu 無 emptiness - nothingness - kyo 虚 emptiness . *

. mushiro 筵 takamushiro 簟 bamboo floor mat to sleep on . *

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. nagezukin, nage zukin 投頭巾 square hood . *
and - maruzukin, maru zukin 丸頭巾 

. nanshoku、danshoku 男色 homosexuality . *

. Naracha 奈良茶 Nara rice gurel and the importance of haikai 俳諧 . *

. nattoo 納豆 Natto, fermented sticky soy beans * .

. nazuna なづな摘み Nazuna seven herbs of spring, Shepherd's purse, nazuna 薺 . *


. nebutsu, nenbutsu 念仏 Nembutsu, Prayer to Amida Buddha . *

. Nehanzoo 涅槃像 -Nehan-e 涅槃会 Statue of Buddha lying down . *
and juzu 数珠 rosary beads



. nenohi, ne no hi 子の日 day of the rat . *

. nijuushichiya 二十七夜 moon on day 27 . *


. noren, nooren, nōren 暖簾 door curtain . *

. noo 能 Noh theater and Matsuo Basho . *

. nori no matsu 法の松 "pine of the Buddhist law". Dharma pine * .

. nukamiso tsubo 糠味噌壷 pot for fermented Miso paste . *
- - - konuka 粉糠 fermented miso paste


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. oi 笈 backpack of the Edo period . *

. okoraago 御子良子 Okorago, Shrine maidens at Ise . *

. omeikoo 御命講 Omeiko Ceremony for Saint Nichiren . *

. omizutori, O-mizutori お水取り water-drawing ritual . *
- mizutori 水取り in Nara

. onozumi, Ono-zumi 小野炭 charcoal from Ono . *

. onsen 温泉 hot spring . *
He visited quite a few, like Kusatsu and Nasu Yumoto.
yu no nagori 湯の名残り / yu o musubu 湯をむすぶ

. oogi, ōgi 扇 handfan - karo toosen 夏炉冬扇 . *

. oomigaya 近江蚊帳 kaya mosquito net from Omi . *

. Ootsu 大津絵 Otsu-e paintings from Otsu town . *

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. Persons and People - names in his hokku .

. Places, place names in his hokku .

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. ran, ran no ka 蘭の香 Japanese orchids and their fragrance . *

. Rashoomon 羅生門 Rashomon Gate, Kyoto . *

. rendaino 蓮台野 graveyard * .

. robiraki 炉開き "opening the hearth" . *
for the Tea Ceremony

. roosaibushi, rōsaibushi 弄斎節 rosai-bushi, Rosai song . *


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. Saga no take 嵯峨の竹 bamboo from Saga . *

. sakura asa, sakura-asa 桜麻 "cherry-blossom hemp" . *

. sarabachi 皿鉢 plates and bowls . *

. saru hiki , saruhiki 猿引 monkey trainer . *

satori 悟り  - Zen enlightenment
. satoranu さとらぬ no enlightenment, unenlightened . *


. seki 関 checkoint, sekimori 関守 checkpoint warden . *

. sekizoro 節季候 Year End Singers, December Singers . *

. semigoromo, semi-goromo 蝉衣 thin "cicada robe" for summer . *

. senkoo 線香 incense . *


. shakan, sakan 左官 plasterer . *

. shamisen, samisen 三味線 Japanese lute . *

. shikishi 色紙 decoration card with poem . *

. shime 七五三, shimenawa 注連縄 a sacred rope . *

. shinobuzuri, shinobu-zuri しのぶ摺 / 忍ぶ 綟摺り fern cloth-printing or mottling . *

. shiro 城 castle, shiro ato 城跡 castle ruins / yamashiro 山城 mountain castle . *

. shisoku 紙燭 torch lamp with paper shade . *

. shizu 賎 person of low social standing . *

. shoshun, hatsu haru 初春 "First spring", the New Year . *


. - soo, sō 僧 monk, Buddhist priest - . *


. sumoo 相撲 Sumo wrestling . *

. susu harai (susuharai) 煤払い  end of year housecleaning . *

. suzuri 硯 inkstone / suzuribako 硯箱 box for the inkstone . *

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. tachi 太刀 large sword . *

. take 茸 mushrooms - (ki no ko, kinoko 茸, 菌) . *

. takimono 薫物、たきもの burning incense . *

. takotsubo 蛸壺 octopus pot . *

. tamamatsuri, tama matsuri 玉まつり / 魂祭, 玉祭 festival for the souls, O-Bon . *

. tamasudare たますだれ / Nanjing Tamasudare (玉簾/珠簾) performance with bamboo sticks . *

. tamuke 手向け offering at a grave or temple . *

. tan 反, 段(たん)unit of measurement . *

. Tanabata 七夕 Star Festival - 天の川 Amanogawa . *

. taru 樽 barrel - taue daru 田植樽 . *
sake barrel offered at the end of the rice planting.

. tatami 畳 floor mats . *

. taue uta 田植えうた song of the rice planters . *

. Teikin Oorai, ōrai 庭訓往来 Teikin Orai textbooks * .

. tenbin 天秤  pair of scales . *

. tenugui 手ぬぐい small hand towel . *

. tera 寺 Buddhist temples visited by Basho . *

. tsue 杖 walking stick, cane. Wanderstock . *

. tsukigane つき鐘 temple bell . *

.............................................................................


. ubune boat 鵜船 for cormorant fishing . *

. ukihito 憂き人 person with elegant feelings of fuuga 風雅 . *

- ukiyo 浮世 the floating world -

. umakata 馬方 horse owners . ###
transport and travel along the Tokaido road

. Urashima Taroo 浦島太郎 The legend of Urashima Taro .*

. usu 臼 different types of mortars, grinders and hand mills . *



. utabukuro 歌袋 bag to keep poetry, poem-pouch, song-pouch . *


. uzumibi, uzumi-bi 埋火 banked charcoal fire . *

.............................................................................


. waraji, waranji 草鞋 straw sandals and geta clogs . *

. wara 藁, shinwara 新藁 new straw . *

. wata 綿 cotton plants, watabatake 綿畠 cotton fields . *
- - - - - watayumi, wata yumi 綿弓 cotton bow


. yado fuda, yadofuda, shukusatsu 宿札 - visitor sign of a lodging . *

. yakko 奴 Yakko servant . *

. yamabushi 山伏  mountain ascetics . *

. yamagatsu 山賤 / 山賎 (やまがつ) forest workers, woodcutters, loggers . *

. yanagigoori 柳行李 Yanagigori, wicker trunk . *
koori, katani 行李片荷 carrying boxes for travellers

. yarido 遣り戸, 鑓戸, 槍戸 wooden sliding door . *

. yashikigata, yashiki-gata 屋敷方 living in a samurai residence (yashiki) . *

. yogi 夜着 bedtime quilt . *

. yoki hi よき日 - nichi nichi kore yoki hi 日々是好日 Every Day is a Good Day . *

. yojoohan 四畳半 four and a half tatami room . *

. yome ga kimi 嫁が君 first mouse of the year . *

. yomo 四方 the four directions / The Four Directions 東西南北 . *

. yotsu goki 四つ五器 4 or 5 bowls for wandering monks . *

. yukimaruge, yuki maruge 雪丸げ, yuki Daruma 雪だるま snowman . *

. yuujo, yūjo 遊女 whore, whores, prostitute *



. zashiki 座敷 "sitting room", visitor's room - natsu zashiki 夏座敷 . *

. zatoo 座頭 blind person . *

. Zen - 芭蕉の禅修行 Zen Training and Basho .
- - - - - - Read: : The Haiku Apprentice - Haiku, Basho and Zen

. zoori 草履 straw sandals . *


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Kulturelle Schlüsselworte


All festivals and dates relate to the Asian lunar calendar.

WKD : The Asian Lunar Calendar Reference


. WKD : Main Index .

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Join with your own cultural keywords!

. Haiku - Culture Magazine - .


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12/07/2012

Momi suru oto

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- Momi suru Oto 籾する音 The Sound of Hulling Rice -



source : agri_school/a_kome

drying and hulling rice in the Edo period
乾燥・もみすり(江戸時代(元禄))



. WKD : momisuri 籾摺 hulling rice .
kigo for late autumn



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momi suru oto 籾する音

大和國長尾の里と云処ハ、さすがに都遠きにあらず、山里ながら山里に似ず。あるじ心有さまにて、老いたる母のおハしけるを、其家のかたへにしつらひ、庭前に木草のおかしげなるを植置て、岩尾めづらかにすゑなし、手づから枝をたハめ石を撫ては、「此山蓬莱の嶋ともなりね、生薬とりてんよ」と老母につかへ、慰めなんどせし実有けり。
「家貧して孝をあらハす」とこそ聞なれ、貧しからずして功を尽す。古人も難事になんいゝける。

冬しらぬ宿やもミする音あられ
fuyu shiranu yado ya momi suru oto arare

source : itoyo/basho



竹の内滞在中のことを綴った句文
source : bashouan.com/Database


The mountain village of Nagao in the province of Yamato is not so far from the capital and thus not quite a typical "mountain village" . . .
It has the atmosphere of the "Holy Horai Mountain" of ancient China.

. hoorai 蓬莱 Buddhist mountain Horai .
a mountain in China, where people would live forever.

The farmer had built a separate room (inkyobeya 隠居部屋) for his aging mother in the back yard.

The village is located close to
. Temple Taimadera 当麻寺 .

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no winter is known
in this home - hulling rice with the sound
of hail

Tr. Gabi Greve


Written in 1684, 貞亨元年、Basho age 41.

This hokku has the cut marker YA in the middle of line 2.

. のざらし紀行 Nozarashi Kiko .
夏炉一路


Basho visited the area around Takenouchi Village 竹之内村 and Nagao 長尾.
He observed a son hulling the rice carefully to give good food to his old mother.


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- by Chris Drake


fuyu shiranu yado ya momi-suru oto arare

hail hits a house
where there are no winters --
rice-hulling sounds


This is a late autumn hokku from the middle of the 9th month (October) in 1684, when Basho was visiting someone in the Nagao area south of Nara, not far from Taima Temple, where Chujo-hime was believed to have woven her large Pure Land Mandala.

The man, a wealthy farmer, was warm-hearted and took care of his aged mother very well. He built her a small house behind the main house where she could have some privacy, and he designed a garden around her house that looked like Mt. Horai (Penglai in Chinese) on the legendary Daoist Island of Immortality located somewhere out in the eastern sea. On this island there were said to be no winters or pain, fresh fruit was always available, and an elixir of immortality could be taken. Basho says the farmer designed the garden as the closest thing possible on this earth to the island's elixir of immortality, since he wanted his mother to live many more years.

Hearing and seeing this, Basho greeted the man with the above hokku. It has irony, hyperbole, and humor. The house (actually two houses, the main house and the mother's smaller house in the garden) is so warm with human feeling that winter never really comes to it, and yet the first hail of the winter seems to be falling on it now, making quite a racket. How could this possibly be? The answer of course is that the sound isn't made by hail but is the somewhat similar loud grinding sound made by people just outside hulling rice with a stone or earthen mortar. In this way Basho praises his host more strongly by denying the opposite, telling him his house is truly a Daoist paradise on earth filled with familial love and warmth in which the closest thing to winter isn't related to winter at all: the hail-like sounds turn out to be related to the source of warm food.

The farmers just outside or perhaps in a special workroom of the house aren't beating the rice but are operating one or more advanced mortars (invented in China) in which a revolving upper grindstone has replaced the less efficient pestle used in earlier centuries.

If you scroll down to the bottom of the first site below you can see a contemporary picture from the Edo period of five farmers operating a hulling mortar with a long wooden crankshaft.


福岡・浮羽町の諏訪神社

source : syokunou.ne




stone mortar 石臼(いしうす)

The second site has a photo from the early part of the 20th century.
The mortars must have made quite a noise!
source : kamiya-e/mukasinokurasi

Chris Drake


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. Basho visiting - Hoorai san 蓬莱山 Mount Horai-San - Mikawa .


. WKD : momisuri 籾摺 hulling rice, polishing rice .
kigo for late autumn


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
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23/06/2012

Basho-An Fukagawa

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Bashō-An, Bashoo-an 芭蕉庵 Basho-An in Fukagawa 深川 

and

Sekiguchi Bashoan 関口芭蕉庵 Sekiguchi Basho-An


. Sugiyama Sanpu 杉山杉風 (Sampu) .
Sunpu was a wealthy fish wholesaler in Edo.
The wholesale carp business, particularly prosperous at that time, made it possible for him to provide such great support to Matsuo Basho. The Koiya store 鯉屋 maintained a carp farm in Fukagawa. Basho later lived in a remodeled cottage that had previously been the caretaker’s lodge at Koiya’s carp farm.
The cottage was named Basho-an after a basho (banana) tree growing near the cottage, and Basho adopted the same for his pen name.




source : www.bashouan.com
江東区芭蕉記念館


quote
The Basho Museum 芭蕉記念館

Known as the "town of green, water and serenity,"Koto City figured significantly in the life of Matsuo Basho, who left a great contribution to the literature of Japan.

In 1680 Basho left Nihonbashi, in Edo (as Tokyo was then known), to live in a thatched cottage in Fukagawa, some distance away from Nihonbashi the center of the city.

At that time, Fukagawa was a quiet, swampy area, and the Basho (banana) tree planted by one of his disciples grew so luxuriantly that his cottage was known as the "Basho-an", and "Basho" became his pen name.

Living in Fukagawa, or using it as the base for his journeys around Japan, Basho established the present form of the haiku, producing many excellent works by which the haiku, until then regarded primarily as an entertaining pastime, gained acceptance as a major literary genre. It was also in Fukagawa that Basho sat down to write most of his travel journals, including his most famous one, The Narrow Road to the Deep North.

We know that after Basho's death, the Fukagawa "Basho-an" cottage was preserved as a precious historic spot within the site of a samurai residence, but it disappeared at some time in the late 19th century.

After the great tidal wave that swept the area in 1917, a stone frog that Basho is believed to have been fond of during his lifetime was discovered, and in 1921 the Tokyo government designated Tokiwa 1-3 as the historic site of the Basho-an.

However, the designated plot was too small to restore the site to its original condition, and continued efforts were made to procure the surrounding land. Eventually this was accomplished and Koto Ward made the site a historic landmark.

The Basho Museum opened on April 19, 1981. In the garden are a small shrine and pond, and on exhibit are artifacts related to Basho and haiku poetry contributed by such men as Manabe Giju.

The museum also serves as a center for literary research and holds regular haiku meetings, and through such activities contributes to the preservation and advancement of culture.
source : www.kcf.or.jp/basyo

Basho Kinenkan 芭蕉記念館 - Basho Memorial Museum
東京都江東区常盤





MORE - hokku by Basho about
. The Great Bridge of Fukagawa 深川大橋 - 新両国橋. Shin Ryogoku-bashi .

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source : homepage3.nifty.com/onihei-zue
Basho-An was near the Mannenbashi 万年橋 "Ten Thousand Year Bridge".

Fuji seen through the Mannen bridge at Fukagawa - Hokusai
- LOOK : ja.wikipedia.org/wiki




北斎漫画 芭蕉 -Hokusai Manga, Matsuo Basho


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quote
One landmark that draws only a few visitors, but is nonetheless a place of great importance in Edo, is the so-called "banana villa" (Basho-an). It is the home of Matsuo Basho, one of Japan's greatest poets. Matsuo Basho's real name was Matsuo Munefusa. He was born in western Japan, in the town of Ueno, and spent the early years of his life as a teacher of Chinese classics and poetry. However, in 1666 his main student, the son of a leading daimyo, died. Matsuo retiring from teaching and became a semi-reculse, living on an estate in Fukagawa owned by one of his former students. Matsuo planted a large banana tree (basho) in the garden, and as a result, his retreat came to be known as the basho-an (banana villa), and he came to be called Basho no Matsuo (Matsuo, of the banana villa).

Matsuo Basho was one of the greatest haiku poets of his time. His greatest collection of poetry is the book Oku no Hosomichi (The Narrow Road Through the North Country), which he wrote while making a pilgrimage to northern Japan in the later years of his life. Although he died in 1694, his canal-side retreat at the banana villa continues to attract poetry lovers, who come to pay their respects to this remarkable man.
source : edomatsu/fukagawa

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芭蕉葉を柱に懸けん庵の月  
bashooha o hashira ni kaken io no tsuki

one banana leaf
placed on the pillar -
the moon above my hut 


Matsuo Basho, age 49

After he had come back from three years travellng, his friends had set him up again at Bashoan 芭蕉庵, the Banana Hut at Fukagawa, Edo.
His discipled had take off one leaf and written eight haiku on its backside. This was placed on one of the pillars.
From his hut, Basho enjoyed to watch the autumn moon.

In the accompanying text, Basho compares himself to two Chinese sages, who also enjoyed the banana plant leaves:
Zhang Hengqu (1020-1077) and Huaisu (725-785).

"The monk Huaisu ran his brush along it;
Zhang Hengshu gained strength for his studies just by gazing upon the emerging leaves."



芭蕉野分して盥に雨を聞夜哉
bashoo nowaki shite tarai ni ame o kiku yo kana


MORE - about Basho-An, the Hermitage of
. Matsuo Basho .  




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発句なり松尾桃青宿の春
. hokku nari Matsuo Toosei yado no haru .

this is a hokku -
Matsuo Tosei's
home on New Year

Tr. Gabi Greve

Matsuo later changed his name from Tosei "Green peach" to Basho (Banana).
1679 延宝7年, Basho age 36
On the first morning of the New Year.
In 1678 延宝6年 he had put up his "shop sign" Tosei and become a professional Haikai Master 俳諧宗匠.
This hokku shows his strong self-confidence in his new profession.



. WKD : "spring in this lodge", yado no haru 宿の春 .
Kigo for the New Year

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ばせを植ゑてまづ憎む荻の二葉哉
bashoo uete mazu nikumu ogi no futaba kana

we planted the banana tree
but now I hate the first sprouts
of the ogi reeds . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve


. Planting the first banana tree with his disciple Rika 李下 .


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初雪や幸ひ庵にまかりある 
hatsu yuki ya saiwai an ni makariaru

first snow -
I am lucky to be here
in my own hut

Tr. Gabi Greve


Written on the 18th day of the 12th lunar month 1686
貞亨3年12月18日, Basho age 43

This day was also considered as the 31st day of the 1st month
太陽暦で1687年1月31日
Other sources place it on the ninth day of the 12th lunar month. 12月9日

On that day he wrote about the first narcissus.

初雪や水仙の葉のたわむまで
. hatsu-yuki ya suisen no ha no tawamu made .

Basho was fond of "first snow" and made some trips to friends when he heard the good news. Now finally it has started snowing on his own home and he is happy to be there.

makari aru 罷りある an emphatic verbal prefix
shows his great joy about the snow.


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source :www.komonjyo.net


I got some rice from friends.

世の中は稲刈るころか草の庵
yo no naka wa ine karu koro ka kusa no io

in the world it is now time
to harvest rice -
my thatched hermitage

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written around 貞亨年間, Basho age 41 - 44

The hut refers most probably to his second Basho-An in Fukagawa.
Someone of his disciples had brought him newly harvested rice to support his poor life.
Basho leads the life of an intonsha 隠遁者 a recluse and makes fun of his lifestyle.

. WKD : The Japanese Rice Culture - .



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Basho-An 芭蕉庵 in Sekiguchi, Edo

Basho's Hut on Camellia Hill beside the Aquaduct at Sekiguchi
(せき口上水端はせを庵椿やま)
Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858) - One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. #40.


MORE in the WKD :
. Basho-An 芭蕉庵 in Fukagawa, Edo .

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深川の芭蕉庵 - Image of the "Frog Stone"



- reference : fusimiin/basyo/fuka10


Sekiguchi Bashoan 関口芭蕉庵 Sekiguchi Basho-An
now in Bunkyo ward 文京区関口2-11-3。
- reference : basyo/sekiguti10

Basho lived for about three or four years in the Sekuguchi Basho-An, where clear spring water comes out of the back mountains. This clear water is said to be the inspiration for the "sound of water".
This home was lost due to a fire.
The dates vary, it seems he started living in Sekiguchi from 1677 till 1681 (from about age 34 to 38), while he was involved with the work of the water supply system of the Kanda waterway 神田上水.
The place was called Ryuuge-an 龍隠庵 Ryuge-An "Dragon Sanctuary", the dragon being the deity of water.

Later in 1726, the place was re-named after Matsuo Basho, and called Sekiguchi Basho-An. Now there is a traditional Japanese garden to enjoy.



source : ukiyo-e.org/image
by Ogata Gekko - British Museum


quote
Where ‘Green Peach’ blossomed
Down by the Kanda riverside in the footsteps of Basho
(the print is missing)
The woodcut print shown here depicts a rural idyll northwest of Edo.
A meandering river nourishes an expanse of rice paddies on the left-hand side. Two men are crossing a bridge, and more people are walking by the riverside. On the rising ground behind them, a cluster of thatched houses identified as “Ryuge-an (Dragon’s Retreat)” nestles amid pine trees.

To the left, there is a shrine dedicated to the god of water, while on the upper right there are a few more huts, labeled “Basho-do (Hall of Basho)” and “Samidare-zuka (May-rain Stone).”

The river is the Kanda, an important drinking-water resource for the citizens of Edo, whose source is Inokashira Pond in Mitaka, western Tokyo. In another 1830s’ rendition of the area, the same artist, Hasegawa Settan 長谷川雪旦, depicts a large stone dam, where the river water used to enter a canal that ran about 5 km to the city’s northern border.
Hence the area was named Sekiguchi, meaning “the mouth of the dam.”

Haiku poet Matsuo Basho was employed in the maintenance of this canal for four years, from 1677 to 1680. Born in 1644 in the province of Iga (present-day Mie Prefecture), he began to write the 17-syllable verse, then called, haikai, characterized by humor and allusions to classical literature. His pen name in those days was Tosei, meaning “Green Peach.”

Having moved to Edo in 1672, Basho lived in Nihonbashi and devoted himself to establishing haikai as a true art form. As a newcomer to the bustling new capital of Japan, he was eking out a precarious living, aided by patrons who admired his poetry.

Apparently he liked working in the farming countryside of Sekiguchi, where he enjoyed the views of rice paddies brimming with water from the Kanda. At Ryuge-an, a respected Zen monk called Sei’ei lived in a hermitage, and Tosei often visited him there to engage in long, heart-to-heart conversations.

In 1680 he moved to Fukagawa on the forlorn eastern bank of the Sumida River. He so loved an exotic banana tree, or basho, planted by a disciple outside his riverside abode there that he changed his pen name to Basho.
snip
Still later, in 1744, a hall — the Basho-do in the woodcut print — was dedicated to a wooden statue of Basho. Now, both the memorial stone and the hall are in the Sekiguchi Basho-an. Four statues of his famous disciples — Kikaku, Ransetsu, Kyorai and Joso — are also enshrined there.
source : Japan Times, 2002 - by Sumiko Enbutsu



. Basho working for the waterworks department of the Edo .

. Tamagawa Joosui 多摩川上水 Tamagawa Josui Kanal .




関口芭蕉庵
Extensive Japanese Reference : source : itoyo/basho

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MORE - hokku by Basho about
. an 庵 hermitage, thatched hut / yado 宿 my home .


粟稗にとぼしくもあらず草の庵 
. awa hie ni toboshiku mo arazu kusa no io .
foxtail and barn millet at this thatched hut


啄木鳥も庵は破らず夏木立
kitsutsuki mo io wa yaburazu natsu kodachi


この宿は水鶏も知らぬ扉かな
kono yado wa kuina mo shiranu toboso kana


草臥れて宿借るころや藤の花 
kutabirete yado karu koro ya fuji no hana


なに喰うて小家は秋の柳かな 
nani kuute ko-ie wa aki no yanagi kana


西行の庵もあらん花の庭 
. Saigyō no iori mo aran hana no niwa .
Basho and Saigyo 芭蕉 - 西行


隠れ家や月と菊とに田三反
. kakurega ya tsuki to kiku to ni ta san tan .

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Fukagawa Happin 深川八貧 "Eight Beggars of Fukagawa"


source : kanpane.blog.so-net

Matsuo Basho himself and seven more

Deikin 泥芹, Isui 依水, . - Yasomura Rotsuu 八十村路通 Rotsu - . , Sora 曾良, Taisui 苔水 / 岱水, Yuugo 友五 Yugo and Yuugiku 夕菊 Yugiku (Sekikiku 石菊) .

Their meetings were those of intimate friends, called
kanboo no majiwari 管鮑の交わり the friendship between the Chinese poets Guan and Bao.
Kanchuu 管仲 and Hoo Shukuka ka 鮑叔牙

For their haikai meeting in 1688, Basho wrote

米買ひに雪の袋や投頭巾
. kome kai ni yuki no fukuro ya nagezukin .


source : www.bashouan.com

With a reference to the Chinese poet
. Du Fu 杜甫 To Ho .
and his meetings with poor friends 「貧交行」.

- source : hinkookau 貧交行

- - - - -

Taisui 苔水 / 岱水
He lived close to Basho in Fukagawa.

He compiled the collection Kiso no Kei 木曽の谿 "The Ravine of Kiso".
Once in his estate, a kagemachi party (岱水亭影待) was held and Basho wrote

雨折々思ふことなき早苗哉 - ame ori ori omou koto naki sanae kana
影待や菊の香のする豆腐串 - kagemachi ya kiku no ka no suru toofugushi

- - - - -

Honma Yuugo 本間友五 Honma Yugo
Son of doctor Honma Michietsu 本間通悦 from Hitachi Itako 常陸潮来.


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Edo and Water Transport
by His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince of Japan
March 17, 2006 in Mexico

In establishing the Shogunate, Ieyasu embarked on a project to protect Edo from water hazards. In those days there were two rivers flowing through Edo, the larger of which was the Tonegawa, and the other the Arakawa, which was notorious for breaking its banks and overflowing. Nearby inhabitants thus were often exposed to the danger of flooding. Ieyasu diverted the Tonegawa in stages towards the east, separating it from the Arakawa to protect Edo from floods (fig-2). As a result of this initiative the Tonegawa now flows directly to the Pacific Ocean rather than into Tokyo Bay as it originally did. This was called “Tosen”, or the Eastward Relocation of the Tonegawa.

. Minuma Water Deity 見沼 and Edo .


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Nearby is the

. Basho Inari Jinja 芭蕉稲荷神社 Basho Fox Shrine .
Tokiwa, Koto Ward 江東区常盤1-3 Tokyo


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .

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- - - - - Kobayashi Issa - - - - -

when I saw the site on which Basho's hut was once located in Fukagawa --

古池や先御先へととぶ蛙
furu ike ya mazu o-saki e to tobu kawazu

old pond,
pardon me for going first
frog says, jumping

Tr. Chris Drake

This hokku by Issa appears in the posthumously edited collection Asagi-zora (Light Blue Sky). It is a variant of a hokku written by Issa in the first month (February) of 1816:

yamabuki ya mazu o-saki e to tobu kawazu

wild yellow rose,
pardon me for going first
frog says, jumping


Both versions of this hokku are evocations of a polite frog about to jump into a pond, but they are more than that. On one important level each version refers to a story told by Shiko, one of Basho's followers, although the allusion is more direct in the original hokku. According to Shiko, one day, as Basho and his protege Kikaku were talking at Basho's hut in Fukagawa in Edo, Basho mentioned that he was looking for a good first line for a hokku. He explained that he'd already written the last two lines:

kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto

the sound of a leaping frog
entering water


Hearing that, Kikaku suggested using yamabuki ya or "wild yellow rose --" as the first line, since the image of the newly blooming yellow rose captures the pathos of spring leaving and the imminent arrival of summer. Basho finally rejected the elegant, colorful flower for "old pond --," a simpler image that puts the focus on the actual frog and on the pond. In response to this dialog between Basho and Kikaku more than a century earlier, Issa in the original hokku in 1816 imagines how the frog in Basho's mind is transformed from being a sound juxtaposed with a flower into the main actor in the hokku. Ah -- the frog might be telling the flower if its polite phrase were unpacked -- beautiful yellow rose, you are certainly worthy of going first, but Basho just told me to get moving and jump into that pond, so I'll have to pass you and leave you behind here on the pond's edge. You'll have to pardon me for going ahead of you like this.
In Issa's humorous dramatization of the creation of Basho's hokku, the cutting word ya at the end of the first line also functions, because of the context, as a particle used by the energetic frog to get the attention of the yellow rose, so I believe this cutting word can be translated with either a dash or a comma.

Because of the reference to the conversation between Basho and Kikaku, the second line of the original hokku becomes on one level the frog's apology to the yellow rose for bumping it out of the hokku at the moment Basho decides to use "old pond" instead. It's likely Basho also made a polite apology to Kikaku, thanking him for his helpful suggestion that stimulated Basho's imagination even as he passed by the flower on his way toward a deeper hokku. There are no pronouns in the frog's apology, so who or what is going ahead is not explicitly mentioned. Instead, the reference to the one going ahead is communicated by the speaker's body language -- in this case the frog's jump definitively finishes its verbal statement and indicates that it's impolitely going ahead. If a human were using this polite phrase, s/he would either
1) add an extra phrase ("excuse me" would indicate that the speaker is going first, while "please go ahead" would indicate that the listener should go first) or
2) use a gesture of some sort to identify the person who should go first. In both versions of Issa's hokku, it is the frog's diving stance and act of diving.

In the later variation of this hokku, translated first above, on one level the frog apparently asks the old pond itself to pardon him for the abrupt jump Basho has decided the frog will make into its water. In this hokku the frog's apology to the yellow rose may be implicitly assumed, since "go first" implies the frog has moved in front of something else and thereby entered Basho's hokku, so the frog may also be apologizing for having pushed by the yellow rose. In Basho's hokku the pond itself is a more important and imposing presence than the "water" in Kikaku's version, a presence deserving the politeness shown by the frog in Issa's later version. Nevertheless, like Basho the vigorous frog doesn't hesitate to push forward and dive.

In Issa's time, the area in which Basho's hut was said to have stood was part of the large garden of a warrior lord. A stone memorializing Basho is said to have stood near the pond there that was believed to have been the one where Basho heard the jumping frog.

Chris Drake


. Kobayashi Issa 小林一茶 in Edo .


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19/06/2012

furusato and Basho

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- furusato ふるさと 故郷、古里 home village, home town, Heimat -

The mention of the word FURUSATO in Japan will bring a lot of emotions to the heart, it is very very dear to the Japanese!
The German HEIMAT seems a bit similar in emotional potential.

There are many clichees with the Japanese "hometown" feeling, for example the red dragonfly, the graves of the ancestors, the Autumn festival at the local shrine and the food flavor of home (furusato no aji), expecially the miso soup made by mother (o-fukuro no aji).

hometown, home village, my native place, furusato
..... ふるさと 故郷、古里 故里 郷土 郷里
"my old village", "my home village", "my native village"

place where I was born, umare kokyoo 生まれ故郷
home country, kyookoku 郷国、郷関

The Japanese word KOKYOO sounds rather stiff, whereas FURUSATO is pleasing to the ear. Therefore FURUSATO is used mostly in haiku. Ever since Basho used it in his famous haiku, it has been used again and again. Some haiku may sound sentimental just because the use of this word. Yet, since we all can resonate with the feeling of belonging there, most haiku are well liked.

. WKD - furusato 故郷、古里 home town, Heimat.


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旧里や臍の緒に泣くとしの暮
ふるさとや ほぞのおになく としのくれ
furusato ya hozo no o ni naku toshi no kure

town where I was born -
as I weep over my umbilical cord
the year comes to a close

Tr. Ueda

Written in 1687 貞享4年, Oi no Kobumi

This hokku has the cut marker YA at the end of line 1.
Japanese mothers keep the umbilical cord as a memento of the birth of their babies.
heso no o, hozo no o 臍の緒 umbilical cord
When Basho has the chance to hold it in his hands again in Iga Ueno, he is overwhelmed with the memories of his late mother and father.



Photo: ©(牛久市森田武さん撮影)

Haiku Stone Monument in Iga Ueno
http://www.ese.yamanashi.ac.jp/~itoyo/basho/oinokobumi/oino13.htm#ku3

my home town -
I weep over my navel string
at the end of the year

Tr. Gabi Greve



umbilical cord box へその緒寿箱
The box is called Kotobuki-bako 寿箱 "Long Life Box", and sold at many shrines in Japan. There are many variations, with a small baby doll clad in kimono above the navel string.


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一里はみな花守の子孫かや 
. hitozato wa mina hanamori no shison kana .
hito sato wa mina hanamori no shison ka ya

In this village everyone is a descendant from Cherry Blossom Wardens.

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鐘撞かぬ里は何をか春の暮
. kane tsukanu sato wa nani o ka haru no kure .
temple bell in the village

(in another version, 'sato' is replaced by 'mura'.)

a village where no
bells ring: what, then,
of spring evenings?
Tr. Barnhill

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刈りかけし田面の鶴や里の秋
. karikakeshi tazura no tsuru ya sato no aki .

autumn in the village

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里人は稻に歌詠む都かな 
. (satobito) sato-bito wa ine ni uta yomu miyako kana .

the local people from the village

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里古りて柿の木持たぬ家もなし
sato furite kaki no ki motanu ie mo nashi

this old village -
no house without
persimmon trees



Dried kaki fruit was sometimes the only food the poor farmers in the Edo period could eat in winter, since they had to give away all their rice to the authorities for tax purposes. Therefore the kaki trees around each farm house were pure necessity to feed the hungry children.

Written on day 7 of the 8th lunar month in 1694, 元禄7年8月7日 Basho age 51.
Basho stayed at the home of 望翠 Bosui in Iga Ueno.
Some say he was the husband of his sister.
. Katano Boosui 片野望翠 Katano Bosui / 井筒屋新蔵 .


. WKD : kaki 柿 persimmon fruit .



In an old hamlet,
There is not a single house without
A persimmon tree.

Tr. Oseko


source : kikyou0123


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里の子よ梅折り残せ牛の鞭 
. sato no ko yo ume orinokose ushi no muchi .

village kids, children of the village


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山里は万歳遅し梅の花
. yamazato wa manzai ososhi ume no hana .

a mountain village and the New Year's dancers


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With links to many Furusato-Basho towns and events:
source : bashomichi.com/

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. WKD - furusato 故郷、古里 home town, Heimat.


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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