Showing posts with label AAA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AAA. Show all posts

24/12/2014

AAA

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- A A A -

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. aesthetics, Japanese aesthetics - introduction .

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. abura koori tomoshibi hosoki nezame kana .
abura kōri tomoshi-bi hosoki nezame kana
(winter) freezing. oil freezes. light is low. I awake


. ajisai ya katabira doki no usu asagi .
(summer) hydrangea. linen summer kimono. light blue


. ajisai ya yabu o koniwa no betsu zashiki .
(summer) hydrangea. thicket. little garden. detached sitting room

- - - looking for the Japanese - - - 紫陽草 ajisai / 紫陽花 shiyooka

no matter how long
I stare at hydrangeas —
pure blue
Tr. Makoto Ueda

. . . . .




. akebono ya shirauo shiroki koto issun .
(spring) spring dawn. whitefish, whitebait. just one SUN


. ake yuku ya nijuushichiya mo mika no tsuki .
(autumn) moon. night of the 27th, like a crescent moon




- - - - - aki 秋 autumn - - - - -

. aki chikaki kokoro no yoru ya yojoohan .
(autumn) autumn approaches. hearts drawn together. four-and-a-half mat tea room

. aki fukaki tonari wa nani o suru hito zo .
(autumn) autumn deepens. my neighbour. what is he doing?

. akikaze ni orete kanashiki kuwa no tsue .
(autumn) wind. how sad. broken mulberry stick

. akikaze no fukedomo aoshi kuri no iga .
(autumn). wind. even if it blows, chestnut burrs are green

. akikaze no yarido no kuchi ya togarigoe .
(autumn) autumn wind. sliding door. piercing sound

. akikaze ya ishi fuki orosu Asama yama .
(autumn). autumn wind, stone, Mount Asamayama

. aki kaze ya yabu mo hatake mo Fuwa no seki .
(autumn) autumn wind. thickets, fields. the Fuwa barrier

. aki ki ni keri mimi o tazunete makura no kaze .
(autumn) autumn has come. to my ear, visiting my pillow, wind

. aki ni soute yukaba ya sue wa Komatsugawa .
aki ni soute / yuka baya sue wa / Komatsu-gawa
(autumn) travelling with autumn. river Komatsugawa

. aki no iro nukamiso tsubo mo nakari keri .
(autumn) . pot for fermented Miso paste. he does not have
for Yoshida Kenkoo 吉田兼好 Yoshida Kenko

. aki no kaze Ise no hakahara nao sugoshi .
(autumn) autumn wind. graveyard of Ise. desolate
for Arakida Moritake 荒木田守武

. aki no yo o uchikuzushitaru hanashi kana .
(autumn) night

. aki suzushi te goto ni muke ya uri nasubi .
(autumn) coolness. peeling. melon. eggplant. (at Kanazawa 金沢)

. aki totose kaette Edo o sasu kokyoo .
(autumn). ten years. Edo my hometown


. - aki no kure 秋の暮 - autumn dusk - .


- - - - -


. Akokuso no kokoro mo shirazu ume no hana .
(spring) plum blossoms. Ki no Tsurayuki - Akokuso. I do not know his heart




- - - - - . - ama 海女 woman diver - . - - - - -
ama no kao mazu miraruru ya keshi no hana - (summer) poppy flowers
ama no ya wa ko-ebi ni majiru itodo kana (autumn) cave cricket



- - - - - . . ama 尼 Buddhist Nun . . - - - - -




. ame no hi ya seken no aki o Sakai choo .
(autumn). rainy day. the every-day world. Sakai quarters (in Edo)


雨折々思ふことなき早苗哉 (木曽の峪)
ame ori ori omou koto naki sanae kana


- - - - - . Amida 阿弥陀 Amida Buddha - Amidaboo 阿弥陀坊  Amidabo . - - - - -


- - - - - . . an 庵 thatched hut, hermitage - yado 宿 my humble abode . . - - - - -



. anagachi ni u to seriawanu kamome kana .
(winter) sea gull. cormorant. do not fight. as usual (anagachi ni)


. ano naka ni maki-e kakitashi yado no tsuki .
(autumn) moon. at the inn. maki-e laquer. I want to draw



. aokute mo aru beki mono o toogarashi .
(autumn) red pepper. green. (for his student Shado 洒堂.)


青柳の泥にしだるる潮干かな
aoyagi no / doro ni shidaruru / shiohi kana
(hokku)

. aozashi ya kusa mochi no ho ni ide tsu ran .
(summer) aozashi "fresh wheat sweets". mochi rice cakes. ears of wheat


. ara nani tomo ya kinoo wa sugite fukutojiru .
(winter) fugu blowfish soup. yesterday. nothing happened

. ara tooto aoba wakaba no hi no hikari - .
(summer) fresh leaves. at Nikko 日光




- - - - - . arare 霰 hail in winter . - - - - -
jewel-like pellets, tama arare 玉霰

. arare kiku ya kono mi wa moto no furugashiwa .
(winter) hail. I am the same as before, like an old oak tree

. arare seba ajiro no hio o nite dasan .
(winter) hail. wicker fish trap. small ayu trout. cooking


- - - - -



. araumi ya Sado ni yokotau ama no kawa .
ara umi ya Sado ni yokotau Amanogawa
(autumn) Milky Way. wild sea. Sado Island (at Tanabata star festival)


. ariake mo misoka ni chikashi mochi no oto .
(winter) sound of pounding mochi rice cakes. dawn. last day of the year



. arigataki sugata ogaman kakitsubata .
(summer) Kakitsubata iris. I am grateful to see his figure (for 山崎宗鑑 Yamazaki Sokan)

. arigataya yuki o kaorasu Minamidani .
- arigataya yuki o kaorasu kaze no oto
(winter) snow, valley Minamidani at Mount Haguro.
for the ascetic Egaku
- and
arigataya yuki o kaorasu kaze no oto


. asacha nomu soo shizuka nari kiku no hana .
(autumn) chrysanthemum. morning tea. quietude




- - - - - . - asagao 朝顔 morning glory - . - - - - -

. asagao ni ware wa meshi kuu otoko kana .
(autumn) morning glories. I am a man eating breakfast rice

. asagao wa heta no kaku sae aware nari .
(autumn) morning glories. painted poorly. showing pathos (aware)
for Hattori Ransetsu

. asagao wa sakamori shiranu sakari kana .
(autumn) morning glories. we drink sake and make merry

. asagao ya hiru wa joo orosu mon no kaki .
(autumn) morning glories. locked during daytime. my fence gate
- and
asagao ya kore mo mata waga tomo narazu
- Basho closes the Fukagawa Hermitage. heikan no setsu 閉関の説

- - - - -




- - - . asagi あさぎ - 浅黄 / 浅葱 hues of light yellow, green and blue ### . - - -



. asamutsu ya tsukimi no tabi no ake-banare .
(autumn) moon viewing. six in the morning. travelling. dawn


. asa-tsuyu ni yogorete suzushi uri no doro .
asatsuyu ni yogorete suzushi uri no tsuchi
(autumn) dew in the morning. melon. mud
and MELON haiku by Basho




ashi, Tamae no ashi 玉江の芦 Tamae reed grass
月見せよ玉江の芦を刈らぬ先
tsukimi seyo / Tamae no ashi o / karanu saki



. ashi aroote tsui akeyasuki marune kana .
(summer) dawn comes early. I washed my feet. a good sleep



- - - - - . asunaro あすならう Asunaro Hinoki, Thujopsis dolabrata, false cypress ### . - - - - -



. asu no tsuki ame uranawan Hinagatake - (Hinagadake, Hinaga-Dake) .
(autumn) moon. tomorrow. predicting rain. mount Hinagatake 比那が嶽 / 日永岳 Tsuruga

. asu wa chimaki Naniwa no kareha yume nare ya .
(summer) Chimaki ritual rice cakes. tomorrow. dry leaves from Naniwa (Osaka). dream




. atsuki hi o umi ni iretari Mogami-gawa .
(summer) hot day. pouring into the sea. river Mogamigawa
- - - - - and
suzushisa ya umi ni iretaru Mogamigawa

. Atsumiyama ya Fukuura kakete yuusuzumi / Atsumi-yama ya Fuku-Ura kakete yuu-suzumi .
(summer) evening cool. Mount Atsumi-Yama. Fukuura Bay. (at Sakata)



. awa hie ni toboshiku mo arazu kusa no io .
(autumn) foxtail and barn millet. not scarce. thatched hut



- - - - -. aware 哀れ / あわれ the human pathos ###. - - - - -



. ayamegusa ashi ni musuban waraji no o .
(summer) iris. straw sandals


. ayu no ko no shirauo okuru wakare kana .
(spring) ayu sweetfish. whitefish. to say good bye
Basho (the whitefish) at Senju, departing from his young disciples (ayu no ko).


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05/10/2014

Article - Philosopher

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- The Great Eastern Philosophers: Matsuo Basho -


Bibliotherapy, Mind & Body, Soul

- quote
In the West, we have a vague sense that poetry is good for our ‘souls’, making us sensitive and wiser. Yet we don’t always know how this should work. Poetry has a hard time finding its way into our lives in any practical sense. In the East, however, some poets—like the 17th-century Buddhist monk and poet Matsuo Bashō—knew precisely what effect their poetry was meant to produce: it was a medium designed to guide us to wisdom and calm, as these terms are defined in Zen Buddhist philosophy.

Matsuo Bashō was born in 1644 in Uego, in the Iga province of Japan. As a child he became a servant of the nobleman Tōdō Yoshitada, who taught him to compose poems in the ‘haiku’ style. Traditionally, haikus contain three parts, two images and a concluding line which helps to juxtapose them. The best known haiku in Japanese literature is called ‘Old Pond’, by Bashō himself:

Old pond . . .
A frog leaps in
Water’s sound

It is all (deceptively) simple – and, when one is in the right, generous frame of mind, very beautiful.

After Yoshitada died in 1666, Bashō left home and wandered for many years before moving to the city of Edo, where he became famous and widely published. However, Bashō grew melancholy and often shunned company, and so until his death in 1694 he alternated between travelling widely on foot and living in a small hut on the outskirts of the city.

Bashō was an exceptional poet, but he did not believe in the modern idea of “art for art’s sake.” Instead, he hoped that his poetry would bring his readers into special mental states valued by Zen. His poetry reflects two of the most important Zen ideals: wabi and sabi. Wabi, for Bashō, meant satisfaction with simplicity and austerity, while sabi refers to a contented solitude. (These are the same mindsets sought in the well-known Zen tea ceremony defined by Rikyu). It was nature, more than anything else, that was thought to foster wabi and sabi, and it is therefore unsurprisingly one of Bashō’s most frequent topics. Take this spring scene, which appears to ask so little of the world, and is attuned to an appreciation of the everyday:

First cherry
budding
by peach blossoms

Bashō’s poetry is of an almost shocking simplicity at the level of theme. There are no analyses of politics or love triangles or family dramas. The point is to remind readers that what really matters is to be able to be content with our own company, to appreciate the moment we are in and to be attuned to the very simplest things life has to offer: the changing of the seasons, the sound of our neighbours laughing across the street, the little surprises we encounter when we travel. Take this gem:

Violets—
how precious on
a mountain path

Bashō also used natural scenes to remind his readers that flowers, weather, and other natural elements are—like our own lives—ever-changing and fleeting. Time and the changing of weathers and scenes need to be attended to, as harbingers of our own deaths:

Yellow rose petals
thunder—
a waterfall

This transience of life may sometimes be heartbreaking, but it is also what makes every moment valuable.

Bashō liked to paint as well as write, and many of his works still exist, usually with the related haikus written alongside them. This one depicts the above haiku. (“Yellow rose petals…”)

In literature, Bashō valued “karumi,” or “lightness”. He wanted it to seem as if children had written it. He abhorred pretension and elaboration. As he told his disciples, “in my view a good poem is one in which the form of the verse, and the joining of its two parts, seem light as a shallow river flowing over its sandy bed.”

The ultimate goal of this “lightness” was to allow readers to escape the burdens of the self —one’s petty peculiarities and circumstances—in order to experience unity with the world beyond. Bashō believed that poetry could, at its best, allow one to feel a brief sensation of merging with the natural world. One may become – through language – the rock, the water, the stars, leading one to an enlightened frame of mind known as muga, or a loss-of-awareness-of-oneself.

We can see Bashō’s concept of muga or self-forgetting at work in the way he invites us almost to inhabit his subjects, even if they are some rather un-poetic dead fish:

Fish shop
how cold the lips
of salted bream

In a world full of social media profiles and crafted resumes, it might seem odd to want to escape our individuality—after all, we carefully groom ourselves to stand out from the rest of the world. Bashō reminds us that muga or self-forgetting is valuable because it allows us to break free from the incessant thrum of desire and incompleteness which otherwise haunts all human lives.

Bashō suffered for long periods from deep melancholy; he travelled the dangerous back roads of the Japanese countryside with little more than writing supplies, and he spent some truly unglamorous nights:

Fleas and lice biting;
awake all night
a horse pissing close to my ear

Yet muga freed Bashō—and it can also free us—from the tyranny of glum moments of individual circumstance. His poetry constantly invites us to appreciate what we have, and to see how infinitesimal and unimportant our personal difficulties are in the vast scheme of the universe.

Bashō’s poetry was a clever tool for enlightenment and revelation – through the artfully simple arrangement of words. The poems are valuable not because they are beautiful (though they are this too) but because they can serve as a catalyst for some of the most important states of the soul. They remind both the writer and the reader that contentment relies on knowing how to derive pleasure from simplicity, and how to escape (even if only for a while) the tyranny of being ourselves.


Posted by The Philosophers' Mail on 26 September 2014
no author quoted
- source : www.theschooloflife.com


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. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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24/07/2012

aki no kure

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- aki no kure 秋の暮 - autumn dusk -


autumn dusk, autumn twilight,
aki no kure 秋の暮 (あきのくれ)
autumn nightfall, autumn evening, autumn eve

"aki no kure" might also refer to the end of autumn.
Autumn coming to an end
But this is usually expressed in the opposite wording
kure no aki, the twilight of autumn itself, 暮の秋(くれのあき)

"Autumn means sunset (dusk)" (aki wa yuugure)
is a famous statement in the Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon (Sei Shoonagon 清少納言, Makura Sooshi 枕草子). It has long been loved by Japanese poets and together with the SPRING DAWN (haru no akebono) been the subject of many poems.

. WKD : Autumn dusk (aki no kure 秋の暮) .


under construction
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元日や思へばさびし秋の暮
. ganjitsu ya omoeba sabishi aki no kure .
First Day of the New Year

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愚案ずるに冥途もかくや秋の暮
. guanzuru ni meido mo kaku ya aki no kure / guan zuru.
(autumn) end of autumn. in my humble view. the netherworld

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枯朶に烏のとまりけり秋の暮
. kara eda ni karasu no tomari keri aki no kure .

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こちら向け我もさびしき秋の暮
kochira muke ware mo sabishiki aki no kure

for a painting by
. Kitamuki Unchiku 北向雲竹 .


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この道や行く人なしに秋の暮
. kono michi ya yuku hito nashi ni aki no kure .
nobody travels this road


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身にしみて大根からし秋の風
mi ni shimite / daikon karashi / aki no kaze

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死にもせぬ旅寝の果てよ秋の暮
shi ni mo senu tabine no hate yo aki no kure (shinimosenu, shini mo senu)

not dead yet
at journey's end -
autumn evening

Tr. Barnhill


I am hardly dead
As a result of my lodging by the road;
Autum's close.

Tr. Blyth


Written in Autumn 1684, Basho age 41.
upon returning from the trip to Musashino. Nozarashi Kiko


quote
I shall introduce a commendable attempt by an English poetess() at demonstrating the feasibility of translating Japanese haiku into English effectively by creating ten different English versions of a famous haiku by Basho.

The basic prose translation runs thus:

At the end of this journey at last,
I haven't met my death, as I feared at the beginning;
At the end of autumn.


[1] Her first rendering attempted to call up memories of great works in the English literature canon.

A weary way; now, at last, the end:
In the beginning, fear of death, that passed away.
Autumn is ending too.

The English reader should recall Grey's 'Elegy' -

The ploughman homeward plods his weary way,
also the first words of the Gospel of St. John,

In the beginning was the word.
And an Anglo-Saxon lament with the refrain,
That passed away, so will this.

Here she seems to be attempting to make an exotic poem acceptable as English poetry by evoking accepted masterworks.

[2] The second version uses simple rhythm and rhyme to mark the haiku firmly as 'poetry' in a form accepted by all English people, - the four line >rhymed verse found in nursery rhymes and hymns.

This is journey's end at last;
I set out fearing Death; he passed
Me by and all my wandering's done.
And autumn's come and gone.

This version personifies Death, using a familiar folk-lore representation of Death as a solitary traveller met on a lonely road.
She may have tried out the easiest English verse form. Overall, this version is too wordy.

[3] The third attempt uses the same easily acceptable form and emphasises Basho's hint of self-mockery.

The end of this long road; the journey's made
At last. Starting, I was afraid
I might meet Death. My foolish fear!
Wandering and autumn's days end safely here.

[4] Her fourth try is more concise and ambiguous. Does the end of autumn bring cosy security or expectation of winter and old age?

The end at last. This weary journey done,
I set out fearing Death; he passed me by;
The end of autumn's come.

In this version, she has abandoned rhyme and maybe for that reason it turned out to be too much like ordinary speech.

[5] Version five is again a three line verse, but contains a rhyme and is more cheerful in outlook, even mildly triumphant.

This is journey's end at last;
I set out fearing Death, he missed my trail;
Journey and autumn's end are safely past.

[6] The sixth variation is the one she herself preferred. It expressed the mood of calm acceptance which I perceive in the poem. It also uses assonance rather than true rhyme.

This journey's over; all the wandering done;
Starting, I feared to meet my death but now,
Only autumn's gone.

[7] Version seven, very similar, contains a true rhyme (last - past) in place of the 'eye rhyme' done - gone. She feels on reading 6 and 7 aloud that 6 sounds more 'musical' and softer.

This is the journey's end at last.
The death I feared at starting never came,
And not my life, but only autumn's past.

[8] The eighth variant follows the rules for Anglo-Saxon poetry in alliteration and rhythm. Thus an English reader perceives the verse as a clever exercise in archaic style which arouses interest.

The trail travelled truly; goal reach at long last;
Death-dread at road's head needlessly heeded.
Autumn fast fading.

She uses words derived from Anglo-Saxon, which gives a strength and vigour to the lines. She thinks that alliteration is still an effective device when writing poetry in English.

[9] In the ninth version she tries, as many translators of haiku do, to copy the Japanese form of seventeen syllables. She feels that English words contain too many syllables to allow nuances of meaning to be expressed in seventeen English syllables.

End of this long trail
Begun in fear of death.
Alive. Autumn ends.

[10] The last try offers an example of a pun, using the word 'remains' in two senses in an attempt to reproduce the device of the 'hinge word' which is used in so many haiku.

My journey is completed, finally.
Death I feared at starting; life remains
And the remains of Autumn.

source : Susumu Takiguchi


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Photo Gabi Greve, 2006



. WKD : Autumn dusk (aki no kure 秋の暮) .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .


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01/07/2012

yuugao and asagao

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- asagao 朝顔 morning glory -

. WKD - asagao 朝顔 morning glory .
lit. "morning face"





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. asagao ni ware wa meshi kuu otoko kana .
(autumn) morning glories. I am a man eating rice


朝顔は下手の書くさへあはれなり
. asagao wa heta no kaku sae aware nari .
(autumn) morning glories. painted poorly. showing pathos


朝顔は酒盛知らぬ盛り哉
. asagao wa sakamori shiranu sakari kana .
(autumn) morning glories. we drink sake and make merry




- - - - - Basho closes the Fukagaww Hermitage. heikan no setsu 閉関の説

朝顔や昼は鎖おろす門の垣
. asagao ya hiru wa joo orosu mon no kaki .

蕣や是も叉我が友ならず
. asagao ya kore mo mata waga tomo narazu .


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三ヶ月や朝顔の夕べ蕾むらん
mikazuki ya / asagao no yūbe / tsubomuran



. soo asagao ikushi ni kaeru nori no matsu .
(autumn) morning glories. monks. to die. Dharma pine
at temple Taimadera 当麻寺



笑ふべし泣くべしわが朝顔の凋む時
. warau beshi naku beshi waga asagao no shibomu toki .
(summer) morning glories. should I laugh? should I cry? whithering


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- yuugao 夕顔 bottle gourd -


. WKD - yuugao 夕顔 (ゆうがお) bottle gourd (plant) .
Calonyction aculeatum, Ipomea alba. moonflower
lit. "evening face"





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夕顔に干瓢むいて遊びけり
yūgao ni / kanpyō muite / asobi keri

夕顔に見とるるや身もうかりひよん
yūgao ni / mitoruru ya mi mo / ukari hyon


夕顔の白ク夜ノ後架に紙燭とりて
. yuugao no shiroku yoru no kooka ni shisoku torite .
(autumn) moonflower. white. outhouse. torchlight (?candle)


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夕顔や秋はいろいろの瓢哉 
yuugao ya / aki wa iroiro no / fukube kana

Look at a sake cup with this hokku:
. Basho and sakazuki 盃 sake cups .

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夕顔や酔うて顔出す窓の穴
yūgao ya / youte kao dasu / mado no ana
yuugao ya yoote kao dasu mado no ana

this bottle gourd flower -
I was drunk sticking my head out
of the hole of the window

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in summer of 1693. 元禄6年

It might well have been the small window of the toilet, since he mentiones the ANA, the hole of the window.
When Basho stuck his drunken head out of it, he saw the beautiful flower right there.
It is quite unlikely that he is writing about someone else.

Other versions recorded by Kyorai

夕顔に酔うて顔出す窓の穴
yuugao NI

夕顔や酔て顔出す竹すだれ
..... take sudare


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hirugao ひるがお - 昼顔 field bindweed, convolvulus
Calystegia japonica
lit. "midday face"


昼顔に米搗き涼むあはれなり
. hirugao ni kometsuki suzumu aware nari .


TBA

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. yuugao 夕顔 (ゆうがお) bottle gourd (plant) .
Calonyction aculeatum, Ipomea alba. moonflower
- and
morning-glory, asagao 朝顔


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24/06/2012

Goyu and Akasaka

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- Goyu 御油 and Akasaka 赤 on the Tokaido Road -

35. Goyu-shuku 御油宿 (Toyokawa)
36. Akasaka-juku 赤坂宿 (Otowa, Hoi District)


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Tokaido, Goyu 御油(ごゆ) by Toyokuni

. WKD : Lodging on the Tokaido Road 東海道 .


Goyu is located in Goyu-chō in the city of Toyokawa, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. A pine tree colonnade, one of the few remnants from the Edo period post town, is a well-known tourist spot. It was approximately 10.4 kilometres (6.5 mi) from Yoshida-juku, the preceding post station. Goyu was about 298 km from Edo and 195 km close to Kyoto. Now it is in Toyokawa.
Goyu-shuku was established in 1601, at the behest of Tokugawa Ieyasu. At its most prosperous, there were four honjin in the post town, though there were never less than two at any point. The classic ukiyoe print by Ando Hiroshige (Hoeido edition) from 1831-1834 depicts the main street of the post town at dusk, with aggressive female touts (for which the post station was infamous) attempting to drag travellers into teahouses and inns for the night.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


Akasaka (赤坂宿, Akasaka-juku)
was the thirty-sixth of the fifty-three stations of the Tōkaidō. It is located in present-day Toyokawa, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It was only 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) from Goyu-juku, the preceding post station.

Along with the preceding Yoshida-juku and Goyu-shuku, Akasaka-juku was well known for its meshimori onna, rice-serving ladies. The classic ukiyoe print by Ando Hiroshige (Hoeido edition) from 1831-1834 depicts a typical inn; the scene is divided in half by a sago palm in the center. To the right, travellers are taking their evening meal, and to the left, prostitutes are putting on make-up and preparing for the evening entertainment.
Due to its reputation, Akasaka was a popular post station with many travellers.


by Ando Hiroshige

Ōhashi-ya (大橋屋), an inn that first opened in 1649, less than half a century after the creation of the Tōkaidō, still operates today. The building it uses was built in 1716. During a census in 1733, there were 83 inns in Akasaka-juku, but only Ōhashi-ya remains today. At its peak, though, there were 349 buildings, including three honjin, one sub-honjin and 62 hatago.

Goyu-shuku was less than 2 km from Akasaka-juku, making them the closest stations on the whole of the Tōkaidō.
At Sekigawa Shrine (関川神社) in Otowa, Matsuo Basho wrote the following haiku, because they were so close:

夏の月 御油より出でて 赤坂や
natsu no tsuki Goyu yori idete Akasaka ya

By the summer moon,
depart out from Goyu and
reach Akasaka.


© More in the WIKIPEDIA !




source : itoyo/basho

Basho wrote this hokku in 延宝4年, age 33.




source - more photos : commons.wikimedia.org

Sekigawa Shrine 関川神社


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. The 53 stations of the Tokaido Road 東海道五十三次 .
Tōkaidō Gojūsan-tsugi


. Places visited by Matsuo Basho .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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ama divers

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- ama 海女 woman diver -
lit. "woman of the sea"
..... isodo 磯人(いそど), iso ama 磯海女 "woman of the sea shore"

Ama are now famous for pearl diving, but originally they dove for food like seaweed, shellfish, lobsters, octopus, and sea urchins — and oysters which sometimes have pearls.

In a larger sense, ama can also be men, usually fishermen, since male divers were not common.
ama 海人 / 海士 fisherman, fishermen

. WKD : ama 海女 (あま) woman diver .



Awabi abalone collectors 鮑取り - by Kitagawa Utamaro 喜多川歌麿


under construction
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- - - - - Basho visiting Suma 須磨
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


海士の顔まづ見らるるや芥子の花
海士の顔先見らるゝやけしの花
ama no kao mazu miraruru ya keshi no hana

quote from Barnhill
The sky of mid-Fourth Month was still misty and the moon of the brief night was exceptionally lovely. The mountains were dark with young leaves, and at dawn, the time the cuckoo sings, light began to fall upon the sea. The high plain was reddened with waves of wheat, and white poppies were visible among the eaves of the fishers’ huts.
The faces of fishers are dark with suntan amid the white poppies.

the faces of the fishers
were seen first —
poppy flower

Tr. Barnhill

Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文 Knapsack notebook - Suma
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


東須磨・西須磨・濱須磨と三所にわかれて、
あながちに何わざするとも みえず*。「藻塩たれつゝ」*など歌にもきこへ侍るも、いまはかゝるわざするなども見えず*。きすごといふうをゝ網して、眞砂の上にほしちらしけるを、からすの飛来りてつかみ去ル。是をにくみて弓をもてをどすぞ、海士のわざとも見えず。 若古戦場の名殘をとヾめて、かかる事をなすにやと、いとど罪ふかく、猶むかしの戀しきまゝに、てつかひが峯*にのぼらんとする。導きする子のくるしがりて、とかくいひまぎらはすを、さまざまにすかして、「麓の茶店にて物をくらはすべき」など 云て、わりなき躰に見えたり*。かれは十六と云けん里の童子*よりは、四つばかりもをとうとなるべきを、数百丈の先達として、羊腸 險岨の岩根*をはひのぼれば、すべり落ぬべき事あまたゝびなりけるを、つゝじ・根ざゝにとりつき*、息をきらし、汗をひたして、漸雲門に入こそ、心もとなき導師*のちからなりけらし。

短い夏の夜が明け初める頃、浜の海人たちが起きてくる。そんな時刻には芥子の花が浜一円に咲いていることだ。
source : itoyo/basho




須磨の海士の矢先に鳴くか郭公 / 須磨の あまの矢先に鳴か郭公
. Suma no ama yasaki ni naku ka hototogisu .



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海士の屋は小海老にまじるいとど哉
ama no ya wa ko-ebi ni majiru itodo kana

a fisher’s hut:
mingling with small shrimp,
crickets

Tr. Barnhill


in the fisherman's hut
among the small shrimp
there are cave crickets . . .

Tr. Gabi Greve


Written in 1690 元禄3年9月, Basho age 47.
The cut marker KANA is at the end of line 3.



. WKD : itodo 竈馬 (いとど) cave cricket .
..... kamadomushi かまどむし"insect of the hearth"
ebi koorogi えび蟋蟀(えびこおろぎ)"locust cricket"
Diestrammena apicalis. This animal likes to live in the kitchen, especially of old farmhouses.


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source : turbobf1516

小鯛挿す柳涼しや海士が家 
kodai sasu yanagi suzushi ya ama ga tsuma

skewering small sea breams
on cool willow twigs —
the fisherman’s wife

Tr. Gabi Greve


Written in 1689 元禄2年7月12日
Oku no Hosomichi, in Echigo 越後西頸城郡にて - according to the Sora diary.
ama no tsuma 海士が妻 spelling of Sora.
. - - - Station 33 - Echigo 越後路 - - - .  


. Matsuo Basho - suzushisa 涼しさ coolness - .


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袖よごすらん田螺の海士の隙を無み
sode yogosuran tanishi no ama no hima o nami

with dirty sleeves
farmers-turned-fishermen pick up mud snails
ever so busy

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in 天和2年, Basho age 39.
Written on the 3rd day of the 3rd lunar month, jooshi 上巳 , the Day of the Doll Festival (hina matsuri).

In this season, fishermen at the sea are busy picking shells and mussels.
On the other hand the farmers are picking tanishi mud snails as offerings for the Doll Festival, walking in the fields and getting all muddy.
The mud snails are prepared for a dish with vinegar and miso paste.




. WKD : tanishi 田螺 mud snail .
kigo for spring

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source : ja.ukiyo-e.org/image/ohmi
Ama - by Wada Sanzo 和田三造

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. WKD : ama 海女 (あま) woman diver .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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aware

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- aware 哀れ, あわれ、あはれ touching, pityful,
to feel compassion -

melancholy, deep feeling, sorrow, lonely
a sight so moving

The word aware used in the hokku by Basho is difficult to translate and has a slightly different nuance in each poem.


Please add your comments about the translations to this entry.
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猿を聞人捨子に秋の風いかに
saru o kiku hito sutego ni aki no kaze ika ni

those who listen for the monkeys:
what of this child
in the autumn wind?

Tr. Barnhill

Basho contrasted his genuine pity for the deserted child with the imaginary grief that Japanese poets put into their poems about the monkey's cry. I

MORE
. WKD : Human Misery and Pity .


mono no aware ものの哀れ the pity of things
the pathos of things
"sensitivity to things"

- Reference -






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quote
An Interview with Michael F. Marra
by Robert D. Wilson
. . . about Motoori Norinaga

RW:
Norinaga is well known for his conceptualization of the term mono no aware.
Would you describe this conceptualization and, perhaps, include an example or two?

MM:
Mono-no-aware simply means to be moved by exteriority.
It is the appeal that external things have on people perceiving them. "Aware" conveys the idea of the moving power of "things" (mono).
For example, let's say that a brush fire destroys an entire mountain, and that in the fire ten people die and a thousand people lose their homes and everything that took them a lifetime to accumulate. Mono no aware refers to the reaction that people who never experienced a devastating fire should have (and the key word here is the categorical imperative "should"): they should feel the pain of those who have lost everything, including their lives.

One might say, this is only natural, but that's not the case. It would be sufficient to turn on the TV in Los Angeles during one of the many Southern California brush fires and to listen to the broadcasters' comments: the fires are consistently "spectacular, breathtaking, sublime (because broadcasting comes from the safety of Hollywood offices), marvelous, sometime even beautiful." Listening to these comments one inevitably feels that the broadcasters are actually the ones responsible for setting the fire in the first place, just to make sure they have the "spectacular" news.

Now, for Norinaga, to be moved by "things" is not the result of a natural process everybody develops from birth (the broadcasters of my example are living proofs that Norinaga was right).

The ability to be "moved" (aware) is the result of arduous study, especially poetry and the classics that help readers realize the meaning of affects. Apparently, in Hollywood poetry and the classics are not very popular. For Norinaga, ethics is actually the result of aesthetics which is the result of poetics: one knows how to behave because he/she has learned how to feel. But one does not know how to feel unless he/she knows how to read poetry.
source : simply haiku 2007


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Motoori Norinaga 本居宣長
21 June 1730 - 5 November 1801


陰暦九月二十九日

Norinaga Ki 宣長忌 Memorial Day for Norinaga
Suzu no Ya Ki 鈴の屋忌 Suzunoya memorial day


observance kigo for late autumn



Suzu no ya 鈴屋(すずのや)was the name of his study room
Home of the bells, which he liked very much. He hung a bell in the tokonoma of his study and used to ring it, when he needed a break from his studies.


quote
... a Japanese scholar of Kokugaku 国学 Japanese studies, active during the Edo period. He is probably the best known and most prominent of all scholars in this tradition.



Hitherto scholars of ancient literature had shown a preference for the grandness and masculinity of Man'yōshū poetry and an aversion to works like the Tale of Genji, which were regarded as unmanly and feminine. Norinaga resurrected the position of the Tale of Genji, which he regarded as an expression of mono no aware, a particular Japanese sensibility of "sorrow at evanescence" that Norinaga claimed forms the essence of Japanese literature.

In undertaking his textual analysis of ancient Japanese, Norinaga also made vital contributions to establishing a native Japanese grammatical tradition, in particular the analysis of clitic morphems, particles and auxiliary verbs.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. WKD : Memorial Days of Famous People .

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春 はただ花の一重に咲くばかり
物のあはれは秋ぞまされる


haru wa tada hana no hitoe ni saku bakari
mono no aware wa aki zo masareru

Spring
Blooms simply
in one petal of the cherry blossoms -
In autumn mono no aware
is at its highest.


Norinaga Motoori 本居宣長

Shuishu 拾遺集 / 拾遺和歌集
Tr. Michael F. Marra


. WKD : Autumn (aki) 秋 .


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朝顔は下手の書くさへあはれなり
asagao wa heta no kaku sae aware nari

morning glory:
even when painted poorly,
it has pathos

Tr. Barnhill

Written in summer of 1687 貞亨4年夏.

His straight criticism of a painting from his disciple Ransetsu 嵐雪.
This poem shows that there was really no need for enryoo 遠慮 polite holding back or polite reserve, between him and his student.


even when painted poorly
the morning glory
is touching . . .

paraverse by Elaine Andre


how evocative...
a morning glory even when
poorly painted

paraverse by Dennis Chibi Holmes


. Hattori Ransetsu 服部嵐雪 .


This hokku is in one sentence, with the cut NARI at the end of line 3.


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振売の鴈あはれなり恵比須講 
. furi uri no gan aware nari Ebisu koo .
(New Year) Ebisu festival. peddler. geese. pathos


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古巣ただあはれなるべき隣かな
furusu tada aware naru beki tonari kana

the old nest
will be so very lonely without
my neighbour

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in the third lunar month of 1686 貞亨3年閏3月.
This hokku has the cut marker KANA at the end of line 3.

His friendly neighbour, the priest Sooha 宗波 Soha of the Obaku Zen school, had gone off for a religious trip to Kyoto. This is the good-by present for him.
Soha had accompanied him to see Zen priest Butcho in Kashima.
Basho feels like a mother bird, when a well-loved baby bird has left its nest and taken off to its own life.


. Kashima Kiko, Kashima Mode 鹿島詣 .

Dates about the life of Soha 宗波 are not well known.
He had been priest at temple Joorinji 定林寺 Jorin-Ji in Honjo, Edo and been good friends with Basho.
When he left for Western Japan, Basho wrote him a letter of introduction to his disciple Shimosato Chisoku 下里知足 (1640 - 1704) in Narumi.

When Basho visited Iga Ueno, Soha came visiting him in 1688 貞亨5年2月19日.
But Soha had been very ill already.


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koen 古庭 A desolate Garden

花みな枯れてあはれをこぼす草の種
hana mina karete aware o kobosu kusa no tane

flowers all withered
spilling their sadness:
seeds for grass

Tr. Barnhill


All the flowers withered,
A pity it is, to see falling
The seeds of weeds.

Tr. Oseko


Autumn of 1686 貞亨3年秋 or 貞亨2年
The season is winter.

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東西あはれさひとつ秋の風
. higashi nishi aware sa hitotsu aki no kaze .

on the death of Mukai Chine 向井千子, poet and sister of his disciple Mukai Kyorai 向井去来 .

higashi is Basho in the East -- nishi is Kyorai in the West

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昼顔に米搗き涼むあはれなり
hirugao ni kometsuki suzumu aware nari

by the noonflower
a rice-pounder cools himself:
a sight so moving

Tr. Barnhill


The rice-pounder,
Cooling himself by the convolvulus flowers,—
A sight of pathos.

Tr. Blyth

Comment by Blyth:
The rice-pounder is exhausted, and sits in the shade mopping his brow. Along the fence the convolvulus flowers are blooming because of and in spite of the heat. The half-obliviousness of the flowers on the part of the man, and the complete obliviousness on the part of the flowers, gives Bashō a feeling which, like God, is nameless.


Summer 1681
Maybe in the years of Tenwa (1681 - 1683) 天和年間





In the Edo period, there were special workers to pound the rice grains from brown genmai into white rice, especially farmers from Echigo and Etchu.

. WKD : Rice Reis, meshi gohan .


. WKD : Bindweed (hirugao)  昼顔 .
Fa. Concolvulus

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古法眼出どころあはれ年の暮 
. Kohoogen dedokoro aware toshi no kure .
about a painting by Kano Motonobu Kohōgen (1476―1559)


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当帰よりあはれは塚の菫草
tooki yori aware wa tsuka no sumiregusa / sumire-gusa

more pitiful
than the parsley is this violet
by his grave mound

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written on the second day of the second lunar month, Genroku 6
元禄6年2月2日
For his disciple Kondoo Romaru 近藤呂丸 / 露丸,
who had shown him around at the mountains of Dewa (Oku no Hosomichi) and they had seen this flower together. Romaru's work was to dye the robes of the yamabushi monks of this mountain monastery. He had been to Kyoto and suddenly died on this trip in the home of Kyorai. His grave is in Kyoto.

Tooki is the name of this flower of his home region, the mountains of Dewa.


Sadder than this parsley is
A violet
At the mound.

Tr. Saito/Nelson



tooki 当帰, トウキ Angelica acutiloba

Angelica acutiloba
is a perennial herb from the family Apiaceae or Umbelliferous (carrot or parsley family). It is predominately in Japan and is used to prepare traditional Chinese medicine (kanpo 漢方).
The Japanese name, tōki has a literally meaning like “recovering good health”.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !


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梅が香に昔の一字あはれなり
. ume ga ka ni mukashi no ichiji aware nari .
(spring) fragrance of plum blossoms. the character for "past". pathos
for Baigan 梅丸, who had lost his son


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In the Christian Bible, the words "Kyrie eleison"
are translated as

 shu yo, aware mi tamae 主よ憐れみ給え
哀れみ

Herr, Erbarme Dich unser!

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !






translating Basho -
even when worded poorly,
it has pathos


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『もののあはれ』と日本の美」Mono no Aware to Nihon no Bi
Art Exhibition about "mono no aware"



Exhibition at the Suntory Museum サントリー美術館
source : www.suntory.co.jp

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. WKD : Human Misery and Pity .



Mono no aware: subtleties of understanding
C.B. Liddell
. . . . . the appreciation of things in the shadow of their future absence.
. Mono no aware: subtleties of understanding - essay .


Cultural Keywords used by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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11/06/2012

Nenbutsu Amida Prayer

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- Nenbutsu 念仏 Amida Prayer -

nebutsu, nembutsu

. WKD : Namu Amida Butsu, the Amida Prayer .

南無阿弥陀仏 Namu Amida Butsu

Prayer Ceremonies for Amida
nenbutsu, nembutsu 念仏

Basho visited some ceremonies in honor of Amida Buddha and Buddha Shakyamuni and spent some time in temples dedicated to him.


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source : suzaku62.blog.eonet.jp


苔埋む蔦のうつつの念仏哉 
koke uzumu tsuta no utsutsu no nebutsu kana

overgrown by moss
the tsuta vines mumble
the Amida prayer . . .


Written in 1684 貞亨元年.

Basho stands in front of the grave of the second son of Yoshitomo 義朝の次男, Tomonaga 朝長.
Nobody is there and the grave looks quite forlorn, yet somehow Basho feels Tomonaga saying the Amida prayer before he died.

- quote
Minamoto no Tomonaga (源朝長) (1144–1160) was a Minamoto clan samurai of the late Heian period. His father was Minamoto no Yoshitomo.
Tomonaga accompanied his father in fleeing Kyoto following their defeat in the Heiji Rebellion of 1159, and was wounded in a battle with sohei (warrior monks) of Yokokawa by an arrow.

When the pair arrived in Mino province, Yoshitomo asked his sons, Tomonaga and Yoshihira, to travel to the provinces of Kai and Shinano to levy troops. Yoshihira left, but Tomonaga stayed behind, his arrow wound having become infected and inflamed. Annoyed at the delay, Yoshitomo announced his intention to move on without Tomonaga, but his son asked that he be killed rather than to waste away slowly and painfully from the infection. Yoshitomo obliged his son, and buried him on the spot.



Tomonaga's grave was defiled some time later, by Taira no Munekiyo, who brought his head to Kyoto as a trophy.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



source : hayabusa560
南無阿弥陀佛 Namu Amida Butsu

Nozarashi Kiko 野ざらし紀行
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


. WKD : tsuta 蔦 vines and creepers .

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source : itoyo/basho

世に盛る花にも念仏申しけり 
yo ni sakaru hana ni mo nebutsu mooshikeri / mōshikeri

cherries in bloom
throughout the world: to them too
“hail Amida Buddha"

Tr. Barnhill

Written around 1684 - 94. 貞亨元年 - 元禄7年.

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Shakyamuni Buddha お釈迦様 O-Shakasama


神垣やおもひもかけず涅槃像
kamigaki ya omoi mo kakezu Nehanzoo

涅槃会や皺手合する数珠の音
Nehan-e ya shiwade awasuru juzu no oto

Basho visiting
. Ise Jingu 伊勢神宮 Grand Shrine at Ise .


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. WKD : Namu Amida Butsu, the Amida Prayer .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .



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03/06/2012

Voice of animals and Basho

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- The voices of animals used by Basho -
Stimmen der Tiere im Haiku


. WKD : Basho using voices of animals .

- - - - - including

ikauri no koe magirawashi hototgisu


蜘何と 音をなにと鳴 秋の風
kumo nan to ne o nani to naku aki no kaze

さびしさや 岩にしみ込 蝉のこゑ
sabishisa ya iwa ni shimikomu semi no koe

やがてしぬ けしきはみえず 蝉の声
yagate shinu keshiki wa miezu semi no koe

撞鐘も ひびくやうなり 蝉の聲
tsuku kane mo hibiku yo nari semi no koe

suzumeko to koe nakikawasu nezumi no su



under construction
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父母のしきりに恋し雉の声
. chichi haha no shikiri ni koishi kiji no koe .
voice of a pheasant


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source : itoyo/basho
memorial stone at the Yaita Inari Shrine in Tochigi 矢板稲荷神社


原中やものにもつかず啼く雲雀
haranaka ya mono ni mo tsukazu naku hibari


mid the plain —
attached to nothing,
the singing skylark

Tr. Barnhlill


Amongst the fields
And unattached
Sings a skylark.

Tr. Thomas McAuley


Amidst the grassland
Sings a skylark
Free and disengaged from all things.

Tr. Miura 三浦譲


above the moor
not attached to anything
a skylark sings

Tr. Ueda

The English word "moor" (Moor in German) has a very special meaning:
a moor, a bog or peat bog, a fen. There are no moors of this type in Japan.
. WKD : kareno 枯野 withered fields .



in the fields -
not attached to anything
there sings a skylark

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written in 貞亨4年, Basho age 44.
The cut marker YA is at the end of line 1.

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雲雀鳴く中の拍子や雉子の声 
hibari naku naka no hyooshi ya kiji no koe

a skylark's singing,
and keeping to its rhythm,
a pheasant's cry 

Tr. Barnhill


Written in 1689 元禄2年春。Other sources quote 1690.
two spring kigo: skylark ('hibari') and pheasant ('kiji')



雲雀より空にやすらふ峠哉
. hibari yori sora ni yasurau tooge kana .
at temple Hasedera


- - - - - two lark hokku from the Saga Nikki 嵯峨日記 Saga Diary

一日一日麦あからみて啼く雲雀
hito hi hito hi mugi akaramite naku hibari

day by day
the barley reddens toward ripeness:
singing skylark

Tr. Barnhill


麦の穂や泪に染て啼雲雀
mugi no ho ya namida ni somete naku hibari

ears of barley —
tinted in the tears
of crying skylarks

Tr. Barnhill

Both written on the 23rd day of fourth lunar month (now May 20)
Written in 元禄4年 Basho age 48.

The barley reddens as it matures, while the skylarks weep for the passing of spring.


. mugi 麦 (むぎ) Mugi .
kigo for summer
Since the Edo period, the word MUGI is usually used for oomugi 大麦 - barley.

. Saga Nikki 嵯峨日記 Saga Diary .


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永き日も囀り足らぬひばり哉
. nagaki hi mo saezuri taranu hibari kana .

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. - hototogisu 郭公 / ほととぎす - little cuckoo and Basho .
郭公声横たふや水の上 - hototogisu koe yokotau ya mizu no ue

一声の江に横たふやほとゝぎす - hito-koe no e ni yokotau ya hototogisu


ikauri no koe magirawashi hototgisu


suzumeko to koe nakikawasu nezumi no su


海暮れて鴨の声ほのかに白し
海くれて 鴨のこゑ ほのかに白し
. umi kurete kamo no koe honoka ni shiroshi .
the voice of the wild duck is faintly white


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xyz no koe - xyzの声 - the voice of an animal
. WKD - Basho using voices of animals .


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