Showing posts with label A - Introduction. Show all posts
Showing posts with label A - Introduction. Show all posts

30/12/2017

Matsuo Basho - Welcome !

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Welcome to the Matsuo Basho Archives 松尾芭蕉!

I want to show you this poet and his work in its own historical and cultural context
of Edo period Japan and the intellectual aspirations of its poets.

. WKD : Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Main Entry .
(1644 - 1694)


source : www.city.iga.lg.jp

hion myoojin 飛音明神 "Jumping Sound God"
Deity of Jumping Sound - his posthumous name


The WKD features many articles about Matsuo Basho.
There are also many hokku discussed, introducing various translations
and the cultural background necessary to their understanding.
Check the long list of "Cultural Keywords".

The hokku are listed in an alphabetical index,
according to the first Japanese word of the poem.
See the sidebar (AAA to XYZ) for the entries.

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Basho nishiki -
a brocade woven
by so many hands


I want to thank all my online friends for the strong support and help with this project.
I hope to be weaving this thread for the next few years.

Gabi Greve, November 2012
Darumapedia, World Kigo Database, Daruma Museum Japan


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. Basho Memorial Day 芭蕉忌 Bashoo ki .
October 12, November 8, November 25 and November 28 of 1694 ?
also called
Winter Rain Anniversary (shigure ki 時雨忌, shigure-e 時雨会)
Old Master's Day (Okina no hi 翁の日)
Green Peach Day (Toosei ki 桃青忌) 
'Green Peach' was Basho's pen name before he choose the Banana plant, Basho.


. Family Ties .
His Wife ? Jutei-Ni 寿貞尼
His Son ? Jirobei 二郎兵衛
His nephew Tooin 桃印 Toin
His father, Matsuo Yozaemon 松尾与左衛門 (? - 1656)
His elder brother, Matsuo Hanzaemon 松尾半左衛門


. - - - - - List of his works - - - - - .
. - Moto no Mizu もとの水 - 句集 - A Hokku Collection attributed to Basho in 1787 - .


. Haikai Meeting with Shayo 潮江車要 .
1694. Shioe Choohei, Osaka 潮江長兵衛,


. Learn from the pine ! .


. Basho jittetsu 芭蕉十哲 .
The 10 most important disciples of Matsuo Basho
and the Genroku period haikai 元禄俳諧.

. Iga Shoomon 伊賀蕉門 Basho students of Iga province .


. Was Basho a ninja or onmitsu spy? .
Onmitsu : Oku no Hosomichi 隠密 - 奥の細道
Sora, Kawai Sora 河合曾良
.
Basho working for the mizu-bugyoo 水奉行
the water "mayor" of the Edo government.
The job of managing the city's water system is handled by the mizu-bugyo and a staff of mizu-bannin (water technicians).


. One Hundred Frogs - translating problems .


Some Fun on the Way

. お守り Amulet for better haiku writing skills .
with Basho and Sora
奇抜な俳句が作れるようになる芭蕉と曽良語学力おまもり

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During his many travels throughout Japan, Basho introduces famous people,
places and a lot of the local history, culture, legends and even local food.

. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. Basho introducing regional food .


. Basho travelling in Japan .
utamakura 歌枕 place names used in Poetry
Basho the fuuraboo 風羅坊 Furabo, "wind-gauze-priest"


Basho's hokku have been called a "poetry of nouns" by Barnhill.
. What is Basho's poetic style? .
karumi - lightness
- - - - - . Imagination versus reality .


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- - - - - Buildings in honor of Matsuo Basho

. Basho-An 芭蕉庵 in Fukagawa, Edo .
- - - - Basho Kinenkan 芭蕉記念館 Basho Memorial Museum . 江東区
- - - - Sekiguchi Bashoan 関口芭蕉庵 Sekiguchi Basho-An

. Basho-An 芭蕉庵 in Kyoto, temple Konpuku-Ji 金福寺 / 金福寺 .


. Bashoo doo 芭蕉堂 Basho Do Hall .
Higashiyama Kyoto and Takakuwa Rankoo 高桑闌更 Takakuwa Ranko


. Basho Inari Jinja 芭蕉稲荷神社 Basho Fox Shrine .
Tokiwa, Koto Ward 江東区常盤1-3 Tokyo


. Haiseiden 俳聖殿 Haisei-Den Hall of the Haiku Saint .
Iga Ueno 伊賀上野

. Shrine Matsuo Jinja 松尾神社 .

. Shigure-An 時雨庵 .


. MORE - Museums in Honor of Matsuo Basho .


. - Gichuuji 義仲寺 Temple Gichu-Ji and his grave - .

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. Basho on Stamps 切手 kitte .


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Basho teaches his students about objective observation
(the word SHASEI 写生 had not been invented yet):

Learn from the pine!

To do that you must leave behind you all subjective prejudice.
Otherwise you will force your own self onto the object
and can learn nothing from it.

Your poem will well-up of its own accord
when you and the object become one,
when you dive deep enough into the object,
to discover something of its hidden glimmer.


. Hokku and Haikai   発句と俳諧 .


造化にしたがひ 造化に帰れ.
"Follow the zooka, return to the zooka."
. Zooka, zōka 造化 and Matsuo Basho .
Zoka


Bashō and the Dao:
The Zhuangzi and the Transformation of Haikai

Peipei Qiu

. WKD : The Chinese Connection .
The Chinese origin of many Japanese kigo.



. Zen, Tao, Buddhism - and Matsuo Basho .


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. Basho and Saigyo 芭蕉と西行法師 .

. Travelling with Basho, Travelling with Enku .
芭蕉の旅、円空の旅

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October 2015

Newly discovered Matsuo Basho's "kaishi" 懐紙(かいし)
shown at the Seatle Museum of Art

米シアトル美術館で展示していた小ぶりの和紙「懐紙(かいし)」に書かれている句が、江戸時代の俳人松尾芭蕉(ばしょう)(一六四四~九四年)の直筆のものとみられると、清泉女学院大(長野市)の玉城司(たまきつかさ)客員教授(近世俳諧史)が確認した。これまで見つかっていない句が書かれており「芭蕉が四十歳以前の活動初期のものとみられ、大変貴重な史料」としている。

The hitherto unknown Basho haiku reads:
我しのふあるしは蔦(つた)の さひや哉(かな)

- source : chuplus.jp/paper -

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. KIGO used by Basho .   

. TOPICS used by Basho .   

. - jiamari 字余り excessive syllables
jitarazu 字足らず insufficient syllables - .



. - About Matsuo Basho - WKD library - .


. REFERENCE - English .   
. REFERENCE - Japanese .   


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kigo for all autumn
bashoo 芭蕉 (ばしょう) plantain, banana plant

. Banana plant - Musa paradisiaca .


. "Basho" Banana Plant 能「芭蕉」 .
a Noh Play


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Your suggestions for improvement of my translations are most welcome,
since my mother tongue is German.
Please leave your comments on the BLOG or contact me directly.

Thank you very much for your support!
Gabi Greve


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Check out the contents on the top right side!


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Join the Basho Archives on Facebook !

29/11/2014

- WKD Library -

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- Basho in the WKD library -


in alphabetical order of the name of the author

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The Daoist, the Frog and the Pipe
. Gestur Hilmarsson .


Matsuo Basho's Poetic Spaces: Exploring Haikai Intersections
. Eleanor Kirkham .


The Ripples from a Splash:
A Generic Analysis of Basho’s Frog Haiku
. Chen-ou Liu, Canada .



Basho's "Here and Now"
. Kametaro (Japan) .


BASHO'S LIFE
. Stephen Kohl .


Haiku and Noh: Journeys to the Spirit World
Noh and Basho
. Mayuzumi Madoka.


Modernity and anti-urbanism in Basho Matsuo
. Ban’ya Natsuishi.  


Translations into Hungarian / English by Barnhill
. Gabor Terebess .


Basho and his fresh poetry
. Eiko Yachimoto .



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13/11/2012

Sarumino Monkey's Raincoat

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- Sarumino 猿蓑 Monkey's Raincoat -

a 1691 anthology, considered the magnum opus of Bashō-school poetry.
It contains four kasen renku as well as some 400 hokku, collected by Nozawa Bonchō and Mukai Kyorai under the supervision of Matsuo Bashō. Sarumino is one of the Seven Major Anthologies of Bashō (Bashō Shichibu Shū), and, together with the 1690 anthology, Hisago (The Gourd), it is considered to display Bashō's mature style (Shōfū) at its peak.
Bashō's influence on all four of the kasen in Sarumino was profound and when he sat with Bonchō, Okada Yasui and Kyorai at Yoshinaka Temple to write "Kirigirisu", he extolled them,
"Let's squeeze the juice from our bones."

Preface by Takarai Kikaku
Hokku
Book 1: Winter (94 hokku)
Book 2: Summer (94 hokku)
Book 3: Autumn (76 hokku)
Book 4: Spring (118 hokku)
Book 5: Kasen
Hatsushigure (Winter Rain), by Kyorai, Bonchō, Bashō, Fumikuni
Natsu no Tsuki (Summer Moon), by Bonchō, Bashō, Kyorai
Kirigirisu (Autumn Cricket), by Bonchō, Bashō, Yasui, Kyorai
Ume Wakana (Grass and Plum), by Bashō, Otokuni, Chinseki, Sonan, Hanzan, Tohō, Enpū, Bonchō and others
Book 6: Notes to "Record of an Unreal Dwelling"

Natsu no Tsuki (Summer Moon) - (Tr. Donald Keene)

In the city
What a heavy smell of things!
The summer moon.
(Bonchō)


How hot it is! How hot it is!
Voices call at gate after gate.
(Kyorai)


The second weeding
Has not even been finished,
But the rice is in ear.
(Bashō)


Brushing away the ashes,
A single smoked sardine.
(Bonchō)


In this neighborhood
They don't even recognize money—
How inconvenient!
(Bashō)


He just stands there stupidly
Wearing a great big dagger.
(Kyorai)

© More in the WIKIPEDIA !



此筋は銀も見しらず不自由さよ
kono suji wa gin mo mishirazu fujiyuusa yo

In this place
people don’t even know silver coins —
how awkward!

Tr. Peipei Qiu

. WKD : Monkey 猿 saru .


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Monkey's Straw Raincoat

Le Manteau de pluie du Singe

(Tr. René Sieffert 1986)


quote
MONKEY'S RAINCOAT (SARUMINO):
Linked Poetry of the Basho School
translated from the Japanese by Lenore Mayhew Rutland,
Vermont: 1985 895.61 SAR

Monkey's Raincoat came about in 1690 when the poet Basho and a friend, Otokuni, made a trip to the capital city of Edo (now Tokyo). The two invited other poets to help them celebrate the occasion by composing a renga. As the haikai master, Basho wrote the lead verses.
"Let's squeeze the juice from our bones", Basho enthused.

Winter's first rain
Monkey needs
A raincoat too.

The renga has been compared to the verse debates conducted by medieval troubadours. Called partumens, these debates provided entertainment for aristocratic gatherings. At about the same time in Japan, Lady Murasaki in her masterpiece The Tale of Genji described the members of court passing the time by making a renga. It would be the great poet Basho (1644-1694) who transformed the renga from a game to a profound art.
source : fearlessreader.blogspot.com


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Haiku by Basho from the SARUMINO collection



Sarumino zuka 猿蓑塚 stone memorial


初しぐれ猿も小蓑をほしげ也
hatsushigure saru mo komino o hoshige nari

first winter shower -
even the monkeys would want
a straw raincoat

(Tr. Gabi Greve)


the first cold shower
even the monkey seems to want
a little coat of straw

Tr. Etsuko Yanagibori


First rain of winter -
the monkey too seems to want
a little straw raincoat

Tr. wikipedia


The first rain in late autumn,
even a monkey seems to want
komino

Tr. weblio


First winter rain
The monkey also seems to wish
For a little straw cloak

Tr. ecoling. Suzuki


. WKD : hatsu shigure 初時雨 first winter shower .
first cold rain after the 8th of November
first winter drizzle


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CLICK for more photos !



人に家をかはせて我は年忘 

こがらしや頬腫痛む人の顔

住みつかぬ旅のこゝろや置火燵 

雪ちるや穂屋の薄の刈残し 

から鮭も空也の痩も寒の内

人に家をかはせて我は年忘


うき我をさびしがらせよかんこ鳥 

たけのこや稚き時の繪のすさび 

蛸壺やはかなき夢を夏の月

粽結ふかた手にはさむ額髪

夏草や兵共がゆめの跡 

笠嶋やいづこ五月のぬかり道 

日の道や葵傾くさ月あめ 

風流のはじめや奥の田植うた 

眉掃を面影にして紅粉の花 

ほたる見や船頭酔ておぼつかな

頓て死ぬけしきは見えず蝉の聲 

無き人の小袖も今や土用干 




文月や六日も常の夜には似ず 

桐の木にうづら鳴なる塀の内  

病鴈の夜寒に落て旅ね哉 

むざんやな甲の下のきりぎりす

月清し遊行のもてる砂の上 



麥めしにやつるゝ恋か猫の妻 

かげりふや柴胡の糸の薄曇 

不性さやかき起されし春の雨 

闇の夜や巣をまどはしてなく鵆 

ひばりなく中の拍子や雉子の聲

山吹や宇治の焙炉の匂ふ時
yamabuki ya Uji no

うぐひすの笠おとしたる椿哉

猶見たし花に明行神の顔

一里はみな花守の子孫かや

草臥て宿かる比や藤の花  

行春を近江の人とおしみける



一ふき風の木の葉しづまる

あつしあつしと門々の聲

あぶらかすりて宵寝する秋

梅若菜まりこの宿のとゝろ汁



元禄辛未歳五月
source : itoyo/basho


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Haiku about the MINO straw raincoat





降らずとも 竹植る日は 蓑と笠
furazu tomo take uu hi wa mino to kasa

even if it does not rain
they plant on bamboo planting day -
a mino-raincoat and a rain-hat


Basho age 41 or later. from Oi Nikki 笈日記

MORE
. WKD : Bamboo and Haiku  
take uu 竹植う (たけうう) planting bamboo - kigo for summer


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春雨や蓑吹きかへす川柳
harusame ya mino fukikaesu kawa yanagi

this spring rain -
like straw coats back and forth
river willows sway

Tr. Gabi Greve

Written between 1684 and 94  貞亨元年 - 元禄7年.

It must have been quite a bit of wind to move the river willows.


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蓑虫の音を聞きに来よ草の庵
minomushi no ne o kiki ni koyo kusa no io

. WKD : minomushi 蓑虫 bagworm .
case moth, bagworm, basketworm
蓑虫 larva of Psychidae

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たふとさや雪降らぬ日も蓑と笠
tootosa ya yuki furanu hi mo mino to kasa

so respectful !
even on the day when it does not snow
a mino-raincoat and a rain-hat


Written in December 1690 元禄3年
He might have written this when seeing the ragged image of Ono no Komachi, Sotoba Komachi 卒都婆小町 the Beauty Komachi on a grave marker.
It might have reminded him of his own appearance, almost like a ragged beggar.


One of the "seven Komachi"
Read the story and her poem here :
. 7 Sotouba Komachi 卒塔婆小町. .



Haiku about tootosa by
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .


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Das Affenmäntelchen
tr. Geza D. Dombrady

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- - - - - External LINKS


猿蓑(さるみの)は、向井去来と野沢凡兆が編集した、蕉門の発句・連句集。松尾芭蕉は元禄4年(1691年)の 5、6月に京都に滞在し『猿蓑』撰の監修をしている。
source : ja.wikipedia.org/wiki


Monkey's Raincoat:
Sarumino Linked Poetry of the Basho School With Haiku Selections
by Lenore Mayhew, Yakushiji Soseki
source : www.goodreads.com/book


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. WKD : Monkey 猿 saru .


MONKEY DEITIES IN JAPAN
The three wise monkeys
. Amulets with Monkeys .


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06/11/2012

His Works

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- His Work -

under construction


. Timeline of his life .

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hyperlinks to the WKD

- - - - - ABC order


Arano あら野 (Wasteland) (1689)


Bashō no Utsusu Kotoba (On Transplanting the Banana Tree)

Betsuzashiki (The Detached Room)


Edo Sangin (江戸三吟) (1678)


Fukagawa Shū (Fukagawa Anthology)

Fuyu no Hi 冬の日 (Winter Days) (1684)


- Genjuuan Ki 幻住庵記 Genju-an Records -
(1690)
Hut of the Phantom Dwelling
Unreal Hut
Hut of the Unreal Dwelling



Haru no Hi 春の日 (Spring Days) (1686)



. Heikan no Setsu 閉関の説 On Seclusion (1692 / 1963).


Hisago (The Gourd) (1690)


Inaka no Kuawase (田舎之句合) (1680)


. Juuhachiro no Ki 十八楼ノ記 Tower of Eighteen .
Juhachiro no Ki (1688)


. Kai Ōi (The Seashell Game) .
(1672) Kai Oi
kite mo miyo jinbe ga haori hanagoromo
meoto jika ya ke ni ke ga soroute ke muzukashi



. - Kashima Kikoo 鹿島紀行 - A Visit to the Kashima Shrine . (1687)
Kashima Mairi 鹿島詣 - Kashima Moode 鹿島詣 Kashima Mode - A Pilgrimage to Kashima.


Kawazu Awase 蛙合 (Frog Contest) (1686)
. Compiled by Senka 仙化 .


. Komojishi Shuu 薦獅子集 / Hasui Edition 巴水編 (1693) .
Record of hokku offered at Sumiyoshi Shrine 住吉神社.
Hasui is a disciple from Kanazawa.


. Minashiguri 虚栗 "A Shriveled Chestnut" .
(1683)


. Momi suru Oto 籾する音 The Sound of Hulling Rice .
(1684)



. Nozarashi Kikō 野ざらし紀行  Record of a Weather-Exposed Skeleton .
(1684) Nozarashi Kiko




. Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文 .
or Utatsu Kikō - Record of a Travel-Worn Satchel (1688)


. Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道 Narrow Road to the Interior .
(1689)


. Saga Nikki 嵯峨日記 Saga Diary .
(1691)


. Sarashina Kikō 更科紀行 - 更級紀行 Sarashina Kiko
A Visit to Sarashina Village.




. Sarumino 猿蓑 The Monkey's Raincoat .
(1691)


Sumidawara 炭俵 (A Sack of Charcoal)
Japanese : itoyo/basho




. Ubune 鵜舟 Cormorant Fishing Boat .
(1688) 元禄1年

. Ume Ga Ka 梅が香 Plum Blossom Scent.  
(1694)



Tokiwaya no Kuawase (常盤屋句合) (1680)

Tōsei Montei Dokugin Nijū Kasen (桃青門弟独吟廿歌仙) (1680



Zoku Sarumino (The Monkey's Raincoat, Continued) (1698)
- - - Seven Major Anthologies of Bashō (Bashō Shichibu Shū 芭蕉七部集)


. Saigo no Tabi 芭蕉最後の旅 His Last Trip .


1787 - edited by Juko and Ryusa
. - Moto no Mizu もとの水 - 句集 - A Hokku Collection - .
A collection of about 180 poems attributed to Basho.


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1726
. - Nijugoo kajoo 二十五箇条 On Haikai: Twenty-Five Points - . 芭蕉翁廿五箇条
- - - - - hakuba kyoo 白馬経 "Sutra of the White Horse"
Published by Kagami Shikoo 各務支考 Shiko


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- - - - - External LINKS

- Reference - WIKIPEDIA !

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Shoomon Disciples

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Basho jittetsu 芭蕉十哲 (ばしょうじってつ)
shoomon jittetsu 蕉門十哲

The 10 most important disciples of Matsuo Basho



source : gyokueido.jimbou.ne
Painting by Toyoaki 豊秋舎亀泉

始に「神無月のはじめ空さだめなきけしき身は風葉の行末なき心地して」、各句
「旅人と 我名よばれん はつ時雨 芭蕉」
「笠捨てて 塚をめぐるや夕しぐれ 北枝」
「うらやましおもひきるとき猫の恋 越人」
「葉かくれてみても蕣の浮世かな 野坡」
「山吹も巴も出田植かな 許六」
「春の夜は誰かはつ瀬の堂こもり 曾良」
「雪曇り身の上をなく嘉羅寿かな 丈草」
「蒲団着て寝たるすがたや東山 嵐雪」
「歌書よりも軍書に悲しよしの山 支考」
「須磨の浦うしろに何を閑古鳥 其角」
「魂棚の奥なつかしや親の顔 去来」


Enomoto Kikaku 榎本其角
Hattori Ransetsu 服部嵐雪
Mukai Kyorai 向井去来
Morikawa Kyoroku 森川許六
Kagami Shiko (Kagami Shikoo) 名務支考
Naito Joso (Naitoo Joosoo) 内藤丈草
Ochi Etsujin 越智越人
Shida Yaba 志田野坡
Sugiyama Sanpuu 杉山杉風 Sanpu, Sampu.
Sora, Kawai Sora 河合曾良
Tachibana Hokushi 立花北枝


They all have an entry in their own name in the WKD:
. WKD : Introducing Japanese Haiku Poets .



. Iga Shoomon 伊賀蕉門 Basho students of Iga province.

Haiseiden 俳聖殿 Haisei-Den Hall of the Haiku Saint
near Iga Ueno Castle, with a life-size statue of Basho

The Haisei-den, the great haiku poet's hall,
was built inside Ueno-koen Park in 1942 to commemorate the 300th anniversary of his birth. The building itself is shaped like the figure of Basho attired in a traveling clothes. The round roof symbolizes his sedge hat, the octagonal eaves his surplice, the pillar is his cane, and the frame of the Haisei-den is in the shape of his face. Other Basho-related facilities include the Minomushi-an, or bagworm hermitage, and the venerable Basho Memorial Hall, Basho Kinen-kan Museum.
source : www.jnto.go.jp




shoomon 蕉門 Shomon, Basho students, Basho's school
shoofuu 蕉風 Shofu, Basho-style haiku



.- Disciples from Kanazawa 金沢 - .



Karumi occupies a very important position in the development of what is known as Shofu, or the style of the Basho School.
Karumi
Matsuo Basho's Ultimate Poetical Value, Or was it?
. WKD : Essay by Susumu Takiguchi .


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俳句αあるふぁ:2012年12−2013年1月号
source : mainichi.jp/feature


There are the 10 most important disciples
and then there are 70 more to come.

under construction

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Some concepts that Basho introduced to his disciples:

bonga ichinyo 梵我一如 (Aham Brahma Asmi, I am Brahman)
as written in the Bhagavad Gita
butsuga ichinyo 仏我一如 "the Buddha and I are one"

butsuga ichinyo 物我一如 'object and self are one'
- Read Haruo Shirane -

fueki ryuukoo, fueki ryûkô 不易流行 Fueki ryuko - permanent values and change, the unchanging and the fluid

fuukyoo 風狂 Fukyo - poetic eccentricity, arbiter of taste, connoisseur
fuuryuu 風流 Furyu - 'wind and stream', 'in the way of the wind and stream'. elegant, accomplished

fuu 諷 allegoric reference
..... fuuei 諷詠 poetic composition
..... soeuta 諷歌, soeku 諷句 suasive poem

guugen 寓言 parable, "imputed words"
guugensetsu 寓言説 parabolical phraseology

koogo kizoku 高悟帰俗 Kogo kizoku - "obtaining high enlightenment but coming back to the populace", awakening to the lofty and coming back to the common

mujoo 無常 (mujo) heartless, without feeling. Impermanence.
Implies detachment and distance between object and poet. the mujo (transience) of life

sanshi kyuushi 三思九思 think three times, then thing nine times, before uttering something important.

shizen mu-i 自然無為 Shizen Mui - Mui Shizen 無為自然 abandoning artifice and just being oneself, naturalness and non-interference
(The concept of SELF in Zen Buddhism : jibun 自分 "myself" is short for -
shizen no bunshin 自然の分身 -I am the same as nature - nature is the same as me. In an extended interpretation
"I am part of the zooka, zooka 造化 is a part of myself, the human being in its cultural environment."

shigen しげん goblet words
shooyooyuu 逍遥遊 Shoyoyu - carefree wandering


. zooka, zōka 造化 Zoka - Creation (and transformation) .
the marvels of nature


quote
- - - Kyorai records:
The Master said that some haikai styles remain unchanging for thousands of years while others are fluid with the passing of time. Although these two are spoken of as opposite sides, they are one at the base.
“They are one at the base” means that both are based on the sincerity of poetry (fûga no makoto). If one does not understand the unchanging, his poetry has no base; if one does not learn the fluid, his poetry has no novelty. He who truly understands the fluid will never stop moving forward. He who excels at a transitory fashion can only have his verse meet a momentary taste; once the fashion changes, he becomes stagnated.

- - - Hattori Dohô records:
The Master’s poetry has both the unchanging (fueki) that remains for thousands of years and the ever-changing (henka) that lasts only momentarily. These two, in the final analysis, are one at the base. This “one at the base” is the sincerity of poetry (fûga no makoto).

If one does not understand what the unchanging is, one cannot understand the sincerity of poetry. The unchanging does not depend on the old or the new, nor is it affected by changes and fashions; it is firmly rooted in the sincerity of poetry. Looking at the poetry of poets from different generations, one finds it changes with each generation. Yet, there are many poems that stay beyond the old and the new, many poems that are as deeply touching to us as they were in the eyes of ancients. These belong to the unchanging poetry one should understand.

On the other hand, it is the rule of the Natural (ji’nen 自然) that everything undergoes countless changes and transformations. If haikai does not go through changes, it cannot be renewed. If one does not seek change, one can only gain popularity in a transitory fashion, but never reach the sincerity of poetry.

Those who are not determined to pursue the sincerity of poetry cannot grasp the change rooted in it. They can only follow behind the footsteps of others. Those who pursue sincerity never stop at where they have arrived and naturally step forward. No matter how many changes and varieties haikai may have in the future, if it is change rooted in sincerity, it belongs to the Master’s poetic tradition.
The Master said:
“Don’t ever lick the dregs of the ancients. All things constantly renew themselves as the shifts of four seasons, and this is true of haikai.”

“The Master said:
‘The changes of Heaven and earth are the seeds of poetry.’
What is still is the stance of unchanging (fuhen). What is in motion is change (hen).” Kyorai compares fueki and ryûkô to inaction and movement; Dohô defines fuhen and hen as “what is still” and “what is in motion.”
Both pairs of terms find their parallels in the Zhuangzi.

Fueki and ryûkô represent the dialectic aspects of Bashô’s poetics of the Natural, which constitutes the substance of the “sincerity of poetry.” The ambiguous terms Kyorai and Dohô use, in this context, are logically meaningful: “inaction” and “stillness” designate the constant principle of the Natural and the noninterference with its expression in poetic creation, and “movement” and “motion” the adherence to the ever-changing nature of the universe and to its novel manifestations in poetry.

MORE
source : Basho-and-the-Dao - Peipei-Qiu

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Basho taught his disciples:

"The poetic mind must always remain detached (mujo) and eccentric (kyoken).
The thematic materials must be chosen from ordinary life.
The diction must be entirely from everyday language."

source : Peipei Qiu: Basho and the Dao


". . . behold the clouds over the east bank of the Yangzi River
when you are looking at the moon above the Kasai shore. "


The "East Bank of the Yangzi River" refers to Huiji, where Li Bo spent time composing poetry.


. Chinese roots of Japanese kigo .


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On composing haiku the Master once commented:
“If you get a flash of insight into an object,
put it into words before it fades away in your mind.”
He also said: “
Toss out the feeling to the surface of your poem.”

These teachings mean that one should set his poetic feeling into form instantly after he gets into the realm, before the feeling cools off.
In composing haiku there are two ways: “becoming” and “making”.
When a poet who has always been assiduous in pursuit of his aim applies himself to an external object, the color of his mind naturally becomes a poem. In the case of a poet who has not done so, nothing in him will become a poem; he, consequently, has to make out a poem through the act of his personal will.8
source : terebess.hu


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MUJO

The basic tenet of Buddhism, that of mujo, or impermanence, is naturally reflected in most haiku, Chiyo-ni's as well. This follows Basho's edict on the importance of becoming one with nature and capturing its fleeting quality. Althought every culture have an awareness of the mutability of life, in Japanese culture there is language for it that is both artistic and religious.

Mujo embodies people's thinking and is an aesthetic term pervarding the poetry as well. Perhaps the cataclysmic naature of Japanese archipelago - with its head quarters, tidal waves, and volcanic eruptions - made people more acutely aware of the passing of things. This awareness became a natural part of haiku, in a poignant way. Haiku, which usually refers to nature, depicts it not as "fallen", as in the West, but transient; there is an acceptance and appreciation of its evanescence.
In Japanese aesthetics this is called "aware", or sad beauty.
source : Julia Manach -


. WKD : Japanese aesthetics .


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俳人百家撰 - 100 Haikai Poets

Click the image for more !







Genroku (元禄) was a Japanese era name after Jōkyō and before Hōei.
This period spanned the years from 1688 through 1704.
Matsuo Basho died in 1694 - Genroku 7 元禄7.
. Genroku Haikai Poets 元禄俳諧.



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. Ishikawa Senten 石川山店 .
dates unknown

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External LINKS

蕉門十哲 with more names considered to be
the IMPORTANT disciples
Amano Toorin 天野桃隣(あまの とうりん)
Hirose Inen 広瀬惟然(ひろせ いねん)
Hattori Tohoo 服部土芳(はっとり とほう)

or

以下のような説もある。

俳人百家撰(与謝蕪村・編):
其角、嵐雪、去来、丈草、支考、北枝、許六、曾良、野坡、越人
芭蕉と蕉門十哲図(對雲・筆):
其角、嵐雪、去来、丈草、支考、北枝、許六、曾良、野坡、杉風
芭蕉と蕉門十哲図(南峯・筆):
其角、嵐雪、去来、丈草、支考、北枝、許六、曾良、越人、杉風

© More in the Japanese WIKIPEDIA !



山口素堂と松尾芭蕉の俳論 Yamaguchi Sodo
source : haikaisi basyou

. - Yamaguchi Sodoo 山口素堂 Yamaguchi Sodo - (1642 - 1716) .


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蕉風俳諧の成立 Shoofuu Haikai no Seiritsu

俳諧は、江戸時代の始めに、遊びや滑稽を旨として、ことば遊びとして普及しました。
先の人の作った上の句(発句といった)に、次の人が下の句を付ける連歌から始まり、発句だけを独立して作るようになります。
俳諧はやがて経済的実力を高めた上層の町人や農民にも広まってゆきました。

16世紀の終わり頃、松尾芭蕉は、滑稽の俳諧から離れて、さび、しおり、ほそみ、などの考え方を取り入れ、幽玄閑寂な風を作りだしました。これによって、発句は文学に高められました。
芭蕉の「蕉風の俳諧」は、急速に全国に広まりました。

立花北枝と加賀俳壇
千代女以前の松任俳壇
千代女のおいたち
千代女の師 北潟屋大睡
加賀俳壇と女流俳人
- - - - - and more
source : haikukan.city.hakusan.ishikawa.jp


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Yosa Buson  与謝蕪村 wrote

"Basho once gone,
we have no master to teach us,
whether the year begins or ends."


芭蕉去てその後 いまだ年暮れず
Basho satte sono nochi imada toshi kurezu - Basho sarite

Since Basho left the world,
Not yet has
"The year drawn to its close."


"Rushing along in the road to fame and riches, drowning in the sea of desire, people torture their ephemeral selves. Especially on New Year's Eve their behavior is unspeakable. Despicably walking about knocking at doors, treating everyone with contempt unnecessarily, insanely vulgar behavior, and so on, is not decent. Even so, we foolish mortals can hardly escape from this world of dust and sin.

The year draws to its close;
I am still wearing
My kasa and straw sandals.


Reading this poem quietly in a corner of the room, my mind becomes clear; were I living Basho's life, how good it would be! The verse is uplifting to me, and it may be called a Great Rest-and-Enlightenment as far as I am concerned.

Basho once gone,
we have no master to teach us,
whether the year begins or ends."


Basho, the traveller :
. Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - Archives of the WKD .



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. Matsubaya Fuubaku 松葉屋風瀑 Fubaku - Ise 伊勢 .
and 伊勢屋 Iseya in Edo



. Edo Haikai 江戸俳諧 Basho disciples in Edo .
Bokuseki 卜尺
Fukaku 不角
Ikeda Rigyuu 池田利牛 Rigyu
Kikaku, Enomoto Kikaku (1661-1707) Takarai Kikaku
Koizumi Kooku 小泉孤屋
Kusakabe Kyohaku 草壁挙白
Murata Toorin 村田桃隣 Torin
Ogawa Haritsu 小川破笠
Ooshuu 奥州 Oshu
Ranran 嵐蘭
Ransetsu, Hattori Ransetsu (1654-1707)
Senbo せんぼ ?
Shisan 子冊 ?
Shiyoo 子葉
Sora, Kawai Sora 河合曾良 (1649 - 1710)
Sooha 宗波
Sugiyama Sanpu 杉山杉風 (Sampu) (1647 - 1732)



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under construction

. WKD : Tachibana Hokushi .


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[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]

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02/11/2012

- Timeline -

[ . BACK to WORLDKIGO . TOP . ]
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- Timeline of Basho's Life  松尾芭蕉  -


Hyperlinks to
. His Works - Archives .


under construction

The dates vary considerably,
according to the lunar months or the modern calendar.




Basho Stamp at Tokyo Station


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寛永21年(1644年) - 元禄7年10月12日(1694年11月28日)
Basyo Matuo, Baseo Matuo  1644-1694.10.12


1644 - Kanei 21 寛永21 Born in Iga, Ueno.

1655 - Meireki 明暦 1

1656 - Death of his father. He becomes a samurai-servant to Todo Yoshitada, the "Cicada poet"..

1659 - Manji 万治 1

1661 - Kanbun 寛文 1

.............................................................................


1662 or 1663 寛文二年
His first known hokku at age 19:

春や来し年や行きけん小晦日
haru ya koshi toshi ya yukiken kotsugomori

has spring come
or has the year gone?
second-to-last-day

Tr. Barnhill


what is spring that came
or was it the year that went?
the Second Last Day

Tr. Ueda


Ist das Frühjahr gekommen
oder das Jahr vergangen?
Der vorletzte Tag.

Tr. Udo Wenzel


.............................................................................

1666
Death of his young master
. Sengin 蝉吟 "Cicada poet" .
Todo Yoshitada Shinshichiro


1672 - Kanbun 12 寛文12
Kai Ōi 貝おほひ The Seashell Game (1672)

1673 - Enpoo 延宝1 Enpo

1676
Edo Ryoogin Shuu 江戸両吟集 Two Poets in Edo
linked verse

1677 - 延宝5
Works for the Waterwork Department of Edo for four years.
. Basho and Sora .


1678 - Enpoo 6 延宝6 Enpo 8
Edo Sangin (江戸三吟)


1678 - 延宝6 (some sources quote 1677)
He becomes a free-lance haikai master. 頃俳諧宗匠として立机


1679 - Enpoo 7 延宝7 New Year

発句なり松尾桃青宿の春
. hokku nari Matsuo Toosei yado no haru .
this is a hokku -
Matsuo Tosei's
home on New Year



1679 - Enpoo 7 延宝7
He becomes a koji 居士 Buddhist Lay Monk.


1680 - Enpoo 8 延宝8
Inaka no Kuawase 田舎之句合 (1680)
Tōsei Montei Dokugin Nijū Kasen 桃青門弟独吟廿歌仙 (1680)
Tokiwaya no Kuawase 常盤屋句合 (1680)


1681 - 延宝9
A banana tree is planted, the Bashooan 芭蕉庵 Basho-An hermitage is born.
. - Bashō-An, 芭蕉庵 Basho-An in Fukagawa 深川 - .
The Basho-An burns down in 1683.
He studies Zen with Master Butchoo 仏頂和尚 Butcho (1643– 1715).
He studies Chinese Taoism.
. Basho and Daoism .


1681 - Tenna 天和1 from the 9th month


1683 - Tenna 3, Tenwa 3天和3
Minashiguri 虚栗 "A Shriveled Chestnut"
His mother in Ueno died.


1684 - Tenna 4 天和4
Nozarashi Kikō 野ざらし紀行 Record of a Weather-Exposed Skeleton
*Fuyu no Hi (Winter Days, The Winter Sun) (1684)



1684 - Jyookyoo 貞享 Jokyo from the second month

1685 - 貞亨2
Visit to Iga Ueno, his hometown.

1686 - Jookyoo 3 貞亨3 貞享 - Jokyo 3
Haru no Hi 春の日 Spring Days (1686)*
Kawazu Awase かわず合せ Frog Contest (1686)


1687 - Jokyo 4 貞亨4
Kashima Kikō、Kashima Mairi 鹿島参り A Visit to Kashima Shrine
He visits his old Master Butcho.


1688 - Jokyo 5 貞亨5
Oi no Kobumi 笈の小文, or Utatsu Kikō (Record of a Travel-Worn Satchel) (1688)
Sarashina Kikō 更科紀行 A Visit to Sarashina Village



- Genroku started in the 9th month of 1688

1689 - Genroku 2 元禄2
Arano (Wasteland) (1689)*

He leaves for "Oku no Hosomichi"奥の細道
on the 27th day of the 3rd lunar month and comes back
on the 6th day of the 9th lunar month.
元禄2年3月27日 - 9月6日



1690 - Genroku 3 元禄3
Hisago 瓢 The Gourd (1690)*
He lives in Genjuuan 幻住庵 "The Unreal Hut" and writes his diary  幻住庵記
Oku no Hosomichi 奥の細道.

1691 - Genroku 4 元禄4
Sarumino 猿蓑 The Monkey's Raincoat (Monkey's Cloak) (1691)*
Saga Nikki 嵯峨日記 Saga Diary (1691)
Bashō no Utsusu Kotoba (On Transplanting the Banana Tree) (1691)

He lives for a while with Kyorai
. at the hermitage Rakushisha 落柿舎 . in Kyoto.


1692 - Genroku 5 元禄5
He is back in Edo, in another Basho-An hermigage.
Fukagawa Shū (Fukagawa Anthology)

Heikan no Setsu 閉関の説 On Seclusion, Statement of closure
some sources place this in 1693, 元禄6年7月


1693 - Genroku 6 元禄6
His nephew Tooin 桃印 Toin "Peach Seal" dies at Basho-An.


1694 - Genroku 7 元禄7
- - - -元禄7年10月12日
He travells to Western Japan and dies on the road.

Day 12 of the 10th lunar month, given as
October 12, November 8, November 25 or November 28 of 1694



- - - - -


Anthologies published by his students:
Sumidawara 炭俵 A Sack of Charcoal (1694)*
Betsuzashiki 別座敷 The Detached Room (1694)


1698 - Genroku 11 元禄11
Zoku Sarumino 続猿蓑 The Monkey's Raincoat, Continued (1698)*


.............................................................................


1694 - Genroku 7 元禄7
元禄七年陰暦十月十二日
12th day of the 10th lunar month of Genroku 7
November 28, 1694 (1694年11月28日)
November 25 or November 28, Gregorian

. Basho Memorial Day (Basho-Ki 芭蕉忌) .

Winter Drizzle Anniversary (shigure ki 時雨忌, shigure-e 時雨会)
Old Master's Day (Okina no hi 翁の日)
Green Peach Day (Toosei ki 桃青忌) 
'Green Peach' was Basho's pen name before he choose the Banana plant, Basho.




. Matsuo Basho - His Legacy .
shoomon 蕉門 Shomon, Basho's school - Basho disciples
shoomon jittetsu 蕉門十哲
Basho jittetsu 芭蕉十哲


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* Denotes the title is one of the Seven Major Anthologies of Bashō
(Bashō Shichibu Shū)
source : Wikipedia

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. External LINKS - English .

. External LINKS - Japanese .


Matsuo Basho Biography
source : famouspoetsandpoems.com



芭蕉年表 - 伊藤洋
source : itoyo/basho


松尾芭蕉(1644~94)
source : www.senjumonogatari.com


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The various facts of his life and travel are sometimes given with different dates.
Even the date of his death is not quite clear.

. WKD : Calendar Systems .


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01/11/2012

Buildings in Honor of Basho

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- Buildings in Honor of Matsuo Basho -


. Basho-An 芭蕉庵 in Fukagawa, Edo .
- - - - Basho Kinenkan 芭蕉記念館 Basho Memorial Museum . 江東区
- - - - Sekiguchi Bashoan 関口芭蕉庵 Sekiguchi Basho-An


. Bashoo doo 芭蕉堂 Basho Do Hall .
Higashiyama Kyoto and Takakuwa Rankoo 高桑闌更 Takakuwa Ranko


. Basho Inari Jinja 芭蕉稲荷神社 Basho Fox Shrine .
Tokiwa, Koto Ward 江東区常盤1-3 Tokyo


. Haiseiden 俳聖殿 Haisei-Den Hall of the Haiku Saint .
Iga Ueno 伊賀上野

. Shrine Matsuo Jinja 松尾神社 .

. Shigure-An 時雨庵 .


Most of the museums feature a regular haiku competition.

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Bashoo no Yakata 芭蕉の館 Basho Hall
Tochigi, Kurobane, Otawara Town -
栃木県大田原市前田980-1

source : www.city.ohtawara.tochigi.jp


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Bashoo Oo Kinenkan 芭蕉翁記念館 Basho-O Kinenkan - Basho Memorial Museum
三重県伊賀市上野丸之内117-13(
Iga Ueno Park 上野公園内 芭蕉翁記念館内)

English HP
source : www.ict.ne.jp


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Bashoo Seifu Shiryookan 芭蕉 - 清風資料館 Basho Seifu History Museum
尾花沢市中町5番36号
鈴木清風 Suzuki Seifu (1651 - 1721)

Station 25 - Obanazawa
. Oku no Hosomichi - 奥の細道 .


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Oku no Hosomichi musubi no chi Kinenkan 奥の細道むすびの地記念館
Memorial Museum at the last station of Oku no Hosomichi
Gifu 岐阜県大垣市馬場町124 Gifu

Station 43 - Ogaki
. Oku no Hosomichi - 奥の細道 .

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Yamadera Bashoo Kinenkan 山寺芭蕉記念館 Yamadera Basho Museum
山形市大字山寺字南院4223

source : yamadera-basho.jp/




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. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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20/10/2012

emptiness - nothingness

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- mu 無 emptiness - nothingness -

Try reading a cookbook, you will not be able to fill your stomach.
Try to understand MU, you will not be able to experience it.

quote
MU (無) (In Japanese/Korean) or WU in Chinese,
is a word which has been translated variously as "not", "nothing", "without", "nothingness", "non existent", and "non being".



Mushin (無心; (English translation "without mind") is a mental state into which very highly trained martial artists are said to enter during combat.They also practice this mental state during everyday activities. The term is shortened from mushin no shin (無心の心), a Zen expression meaning the mind without mind and is also referred to as the state of "no-mindness". When we realize our own nothingness then we realize the power of our true being.
Steve Weiss


Matsuo Basho and MU
The practice of Zen shaped Basho's thinking and established some life principles. R. H. Blyth, a well-known British theoretician of haiku poetry, linked loneliness, a strong theme of Basho's poetry, with the notion of mu in Zen, a state of absolute spiritual poverty, in which not possessing a thing, one can possess everything.
Susumu Takiguchi


. WKD : MU, Nothingness, the Void .


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Journal of Bleached Bones in a Field

I set out on a journey of a thousand leagues, packing no provisions.
I leaned on the staff of an ancient who, it is said,
entered into nothingness under the midnight moon.
It was the first year of Jokyo, autumn, the eighth moon.
As I left my ramshackle hut by the river,
the sound of the wind was strangely cold.
Tr. Barnhill

野ざらしを心に風のしむ身かな
nozarashi o kokoro ni kaze no shimu mi kana

bleached bones
on my mind, the wind pierces
my body to the heart

Tr. Barnhill


. Nozarashi Kiko  野ざらし紀行 .


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quote
Tracing the application of a cluster of Daoist terms, such as zôka, shizen/j’inen, tenkô (heaven’s work), tenrai (the piping of heaven),
kyo 虚 (emptiness), and ki 気 (the primal breath),
back to Chinese critical tradition, this chapter examines how Bashô adapted these notions, particularly the principles regarding the operation of the poetic mind and the criteria of poetic quality, in forming his compositional theories. In both areas, Bashô emphasizes the importance of following zôka to poetic creativity.

In his famous haibun, Oi no kobumi (Essays in my pannier, 1687), Bashô declares that zôka is the single most important principle that runs through all arts.
snip

Zhuangzi says,
“It is only through the Way that one can gather emptiness.”
The “emptiness” is the fasting of the mind (xinzhai 心齊).
According to Lin’s notes, “emptiness” as the mental condition of apprehending the Dao designates a state totally free of subjectivity. An important path toward this state is to let the natural substratum—the primal breath—lead contemplation and expression.
The Zhuangzi afirrms that supreme cognition occurs when one has completely eliminated subjectivity and let the self become one with the cosmos:

He sees in the darkest dark, hears where there is no sound.
In the midst of darkness, he alone sees the dawn;
in the midst of the soundless, he alone hears harmony.
Therefore, in depth piled upon depth he can spy out the thing;
in spirituality piled upon spirituality he can discover the essence.


kyojitsu 虚実
Interpreted variously as emptiness and substantiality, falsehood and truth, fabrication and verisimilitude, and so forth, this pair of concepts is used widely in Chinese philosophical, literary, medicinal, and military strategic discourses.

The Master has said:
“Learn about pine from pines and learn about bamboo from bamboos.”
By these words he is teaching us to eradicate subjectivity.
One will end up learning nothing with one’s subjective self even if one wants to learn. To learn means to enter the object, to find its subtle details and empathize with it, and let what is experienced become poetry. For instance, if one has portrayed the outer form of an object but failed to express the feelings that flow naturally out of it, the object and the author’s self become two, so the poem cannot achieve sincerity. It is merely a product of subjectivity.
source : Basho-and-the-Dao - Peipei-Qiu

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. Learn from the pine .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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14/10/2012

Kashima Kiko

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- Kashima Kikoo 鹿島紀行 - A Visit to the Kashima Shrine
Kashima Moode 鹿島詣 Kashima Mode - A Pilgrimage to Kashima.



The Kashima shrine is dedicated to the deity
Takemikazuchi no mikoto (武甕槌大神) - Kashima Daijin (鹿島大神) "Great God at Kashima".
a patron of the martial arts and related to earthquakes.
The "Great God of Kashima" rode on a white deer from Kashima all the way to the Kasuga shrine in Nara as a divine messenger, and the deer became the symbol of Nara.

arare furi 霰ふり hail falls
is a special word (makurakotoba) to denote the God of Kashima in the Manyoshu poetry.

quote
Kashima Shinko 鹿島信仰 -
It is possible to think of Kashima faith as the sect based at Kashima Jingū in Kashima-machi, Ibaraki Prefecture, but it can broadly be divided into beliefs related to water, "tutelary of roads" (sae no kami 障の神(さえのかみ)), and Kashima shrines. Many regions and shrines bear the name "Kashima," and since these are usually found in river, stream, lake, or swamp areas, we can assume that the origins of Kashima faith are profoundly connected with water.
snip
. WKD : Kashima Jinguu 鹿島神宮 Shrine Kashima Jingu and its kigo .


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A Pilgrimage to Kashima.
From the 8th to the 12th month of 1687 Basho took a short trip to the Kashima Shrine to see the harvest moon. The night of the viewing was rainy and overcast, but he was able to visit with the Zen Buddhist priest with whom he had studied in Edo.

- English reference -



- Japanese Reference -


Click on the hyperlinks for further discussions of the poems by Basho.

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The Narrow Road to the Deep North and Other Travel Sketches
Matsuo Basho (Author), Nobuyuki Yuasa (Translator)

A VISIT TO THE KASHIMA SHRINE
Tr. Nobuyuki Yuasa

Visiting the Suma Beach on the night of the autumnal full moon, Teishitsu 洛の貞室, a poet from Kyoto, is said to have written,

松かげや月は三五夜中納言

Crouching under a pine
I watched the full moon,
Pondering all night long
On the sorrow of Chunagon.


Having for some time cherished in my mind the memory of this poet, I wandered out on to the road at last one day this past autumn, possessed by an irresistible desire to see the rise of the full moon over the mountains of the Kashima Shrine. I was accompanied by two men. One was a master- less youth and the other was a wandering priest. The latter was clad in a robe black as a crow, with a bundle of sacred stoles around his neck and on his back a portable shrine con­taining a holy image of the Buddha-after-enlightenment. This priest, brandishing his long staff, stepped into the road, ahead of all the others, as if he had a free pass to the World beyond the Gateless Gate.

I, too, was clad in a black robe, but neither a priest nor an ordinary man of this world was I, for I wavered ceaselessly like a bat that passes for a bird at one time and for a mouse at another. We got on a boat near my house and sailed to the town of Gyotoku, where, landing from our boat, we proceeded without hiring a horse, for we wanted to try the strength of our slender legs.

Covering our heads with cypress hats, which were a kind gift of a certain friend in the province of Kai, we walked along, till, having passed the village of Yahata we came to the endless grass-moor called Kamagai-no-hara. In China, it is said, there is a wide field where one can command a distance of one thousand miles by a single glance, but here our eyes swept over the grass unobstructed, till finally they rested upon the twin peaks of Mount Tsukuba soaring above the horizon. Rising into heaven, like two swords piercing the sky, these peaks vie with the famous twin peaks of Mount Rozan 廬山 in China.

雪は申さずまづむらさきのつくば哉
. yuki wa mosazu mazu murasaki no Tsukuba kana .

Not to mention
The beauty of its snow,
Mount Tsukuba shines forth
In its purple robes.

This is a poem written by Ransetsu, my disciple, upon his visit here. Prince Yamatotakeru also immortalized this mountain in his poem, and the first anthology of linked verse was named after this mountain. Indeed such is the beauty of the mountain that few poets have found it pos­sible to pass by it without composing a poem of their own, be it waka or haiku.

Scattered all around me were the flowers of bush-clover. As I watched them in amazement, I could not help ad­miring Tamenaka who is said to have carried sprays of bush-clover in his luggage all the way to Kyoto as a sou­venir. Among the bush-clover were other wild flowers in bloom, such as bellflower, valerian, pampas large and small, all tangled in great confusion. The belling of wild stags, probably calling their mates, was heard now and then, and herds of horses were seen stepping proudly as they trampled upon the grass.

We reached the town of Fusa on the banks of the River Tone towards nightfall. The fishermen of this town catch salmon by spreading wickerwork traps in the river, and sell it in the markets in Edo. We went into one of the fisher­men's huts and had a short sleep amidst the fishy smell. Upon waking, however, we hired a boat, and, descending the river under the bright beams of the moon, arrived at the Kashima Shrine.

On the following day it started to rain in the afternoon, and in no way could we see the rise of the full moon. I was told that the former priest of the Komponji Temple was living in seclusion at the foot of the hill where the shrine was situated. So I went to see him, and was granted a night's shelter. The tranquillity of the priest's hermitage was such that it inspired, in the words of an ancient poet, 'a profound sense of meditation' in my heart, and for a while at least I was able to forget the fretful feeling I had about not being able to see the full moon.

Shortly before day­break, however, the moon began to shine through the rifts made in the hanging clouds. I immediately wakened the priest, and other members of the household followed him out of bed. We sat for a long time in utter silence, watching the moonlight trying to penetrate the clouds and listening to the sound of the lingering rain. It was really regrettable that I had come such a long way only to look at the dark shadow of the moon, but I consoled myself by remem­bering the famous lady who had returned without composing a single poem from the long walk she had taken to hear a cuckoo.

The following are the poems we composed on this occasion:

おりおりにかはらぬ空の月かげもちぢのながめは雲のまにまに

Regardless of weather,
The moon shines the same;
It is the drifting clouds
That make it seem different
On different nights.

(by the priest 和尚)


月はやし梢は雨を持ながら
. tsuki hayashi kozue wa ame o mochinagara .

Swift the moon
Across the sky,
Treetops below
Dripping with rain.


寺にねてまことがほなる月見かな
. tera ni nete makoto gao ni naru tsukimi kana.

Having slept
In a temple,
I watched the moon
With a solemn look.
(Two by Tosei 桃青 - Basho) - at temple 根本寺 Konpon-Ji



雨にねて竹おきかへる月見かな

Having slept
In the rain,
The bamboo corrected itself
To view the moon.

(by Sora 曽良)


月さびし堂の軒端の雨しづく

How lonely it is
To look at the moon
Hearing in a temple
Eavesdrops pattering.

(by Soha 宗波)


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Poems composed at the Kashima Shrine 神前 :

此松の実ばえせし代や神の秋
. kono matsu no mibae seshi yo ya kami no aki .

In the days
Of the ancient gods,
A mere seedling
This pine must have been.
(by Tosei 桃青 - Basho)


ぬぐはばや石のおましの苔の露

Let us wipe
In solemn penitence
Dew-drops gathered
On the sacred stone.

(by Soha 宗波)


膝折やかしこまりなく鹿の声

In front of the shrine
Even stags kneel down
To worship,
Raising pitiful cries.

(by Sora 曽良)


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Poems composed at a farm-house 田家:

かりかけし田面の鶴や里の秋
karikakeshi tazura no tsuru ya sato no aki

A solitary crane
In the half-reaped paddies,
The autumn deepens
In the village.
(by Tosei 桃青 - Basho)


夜田かりに我やとはれん里の月

Under this bright moon
Over the village,
Let me help the farmers
Harvest rice.

(by Soha 宗波)


賤の子や稲すりかけて月をみる
. shizu no ko ya ine surikakete tsuki o miru .

A farmer's child
Hulling rice
Arrests his hands
To look at the moon.
(by Tosei 桃青 - Basho)


芋の葉や月まつ里の焼ばたけ
imo no ha ya tsuki matsu sato no yakibatake

Potato leaves
On incinerated ground,
I awaited tiptoe
The rise of the moon.
(by Tosei 桃青 - Basho)


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Poems composed in a field 野:

ももひきや一花すりの萩ごろも

Dyed a gay colour
My trousers will be
By the bush-clovers
In full bloom.

(by Sora 曽良)


 花の秋草にくひあく野馬かな

In mid-autumn
Horses are left to graze
Till they fall replete
In the flowering grass.

(by Sora 曽良)



萩原や一夜はやどせ山の犬
hagihara ya hito-yo wa yadose yama no inu

Bush clovers,
Be kind enough to take in
This pack of mountain dogs
At least for a night.
(by Tosei 桃青 - Basho) at 北総


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Poems composed at Jijun's house where we stopped on our way home 帰路自準に宿す:

塒(ねぐら)せよわら干宿の友すずめ

Friend sparrows,
Sleep, if you please,
Haystack-enclosed
At my house.

(Written by the host 主人)


秋をこめたるくねのさし杉


Surrounded by a thick foliage of cedars,
Your house stands, pregnant with autumn.

(Written by a guest 客)

月見んと汐ひきのぼる舟とめて

We started out
On our moon-viewing trip,
Calling to halt
A boat ascending the river.

(by Sora 曽良)

The twenty-fifth of August, the Fourth Year of Jyokyo. 貞享丁卯仲秋末五日


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. priest Sooha 宗波 Soha of the Obaku Zen school .


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karikakeshi tazura no tsuru ya sato no aki

in the half harvested
rice paddies, a crane —
autumn in the village

Tr. Barnhill


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imo no ha ya tsuki matsu sato no yakibatake

taro leaves—
awaiting the moon
on the village’s burnt field

Tr. Barnhill


. WKD : imo 芋 (いも) Taro .
Colocasia antiquorum
The word imo is also used in combination for all kinds of other potatoes.
The translations for potatoe in Japan get mixed up easily.


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萩原や一夜はやどせ山の犬
hagihara ya hito-yo wa yadose yama no inu
hagi-hara ya

field of bush clovers —
be their shelter for a night:
mountain dogs

Tr. Barnhill


Bush clovers,
Be kind enough to take in
This pack of mountain dogs
At least for a night.

Tr. Yuasa

Basho is praying to the wolves, messengers of the Mountain Deity, not to come to this place tonight and let him sleep safely. He assures them that he also would not do anything to pollute their sacred field of residence.

. yama no inu, yama-inu, yamainu 山犬 "mountain dog", wolf .
As a messenger of the Mountain Deity, they protect the fields by chasing deer and wild boars, which often harm the fields.
They also protect travelers, by walking behind them in a good distance - 送り狼 okuri-ookami. If the traveler comes to a human settlement after walking in the woods, he would place one of his straw sandals on the ground with an offering of rice.
Other lonely travelers might be attacked by a pack of wolves and spent a night hanging high in the branches of a tree.


this field of bush clovers -
let it be my place of rest for one night,
you honorable wolves

Tr. Greve


Tsukioka Yoshitoshi 月岡芳年 (1839 – 1892)

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On a stone memorial in the Kashima Shrine compound


Photo by Rob Geraghty

名月や鶴脛高き遠干潟
meigetsu ya tsuru hagi takaki too higata


It is the full moon!
The crane's lower legs are tall
On far tidal flats

Tr. Rob Geraghty

With a photo of cranes :
source : www.pentaxforums.com

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鹿島紀行 - Kashima Kiko Sweets


source : www.bokuden.or.jp

Sweets made from sweet chestnuts from Mount Tsukuba and
autumn buckwheat of Hitachi.
筑波栗と常陸(金砂郷)秋そば

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. WKD : Kashima Jinguu 鹿島神宮 Shrine Kashima Jingu .


. Cultural Keywords used by Basho .

. - KIGO used by Matsuo Basho 松尾芭蕉 - .


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